Uses Of Wind Energy In Rural Areas

Chris asks…

How we saving our planet…?????10 p?

-life in 50 year’s time(what will it be like?)
-the end of oil(what will happen?)
-alternative energy sources (will they be enough?)
-pollution(can we stop it?)
-our lifestyle(will people change?) …
I have to write a text of 100 words,can you help me???10 p

Windmill Farms answers:

Unless population growth is not checked problem will be most complicated.There will be scarcity of basic amenities like food,shelter,clothes.,Area and hence natural resources can not be extended.
But source of energy may be solved with discovery of oil sources and utilisation of wind energy,solar energy etc.More nuclear power stations may be installed.To check the growth of populaton there should be free distribution of TVsets in rural areas of populous nations to divert the mind to television.
Pollution and green house effect will remain a major concern unless there is optimal production and use of all articles.If we every individual try to use every items and dispose it off and repurchase at a cheap price there will be huge production of all items and erotion of natural resources and earth crust ultimately.Also sound and enviromental pollution for using huge articles.
But the more use of internet and telephone will reduce the use of paper and vehicles and reduce the polution.

Sandra asks…

Will there be alternative fuels in the future as well as electric cars?

The reason I ask is because I live in a rural area and a fuel source such as biofuel, hydrogen, etc. would do me better than an electric car.

Windmill Farms answers:

There are many options for alternative fuels outside of urban areas, but all fuels must come from an energy source and ultimately that is the sun except for some volcanic based geothermal, tidal and nuclear energy all of which may be more difficult to use in a rural environment.

Hydro, Wind, Solar PV, bio-feedstocks and some geothermal are all derived from the sun. The most direct sources of power from the sun tend to be the most efficient. The most efficient transfer of energy tends to be electricity. But you could also use Wind to compress air. You could use the electricity from solar panels or a parabolic concentrating solar generator to produce hydrogen. You could use that sunlight to grow crops and then produce methane from a bio-digester. You also might grow crops and make either ethanol or bio-diesel.

But any vehicle that stores energy on the vehicle will have a limited range. So perhaps more important than producing your own energy is what will be generally available at some distance so that you could increase your travel range.

Hydrogen is highly polluting in its production from fossil fuels and 96% of hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels because this is the cheapest and most efficient method. But there is a huge push by petrochemical interests for this fuel. It is likely we will be forced into this decision.

Bio fuels are presently popular but anyplace we could make biofuels could be used for food production. This tends to limit this as a future choice. The US military seems to favor biofuels however because they are a true alternative to petrochemicals and therefore potentially a more secure option. This may push some availability.

Like electricity, compressed air is possible but would require far more infrastructure and this tends to degrade this as an option. There are also sever efficiency issues if heat is not re used.

Like it or not Electricity is a strong option. There are approximately 160,000 plug in vehicles in the US. Http:// No other alternative comes even close. There is some existing infrastructure which is rapidly being built out. It will build from high density areas into more rural areas and eventually you can expect a complete network.

Mark asks…

Exam tommorow . . .?

what are the causes of polloution and how can it be reduced? That is one of my questions for my mock GCSE exam in humanities but im not sure on it any one know?


Windmill Farms answers:

There are several different types of pollution:
air, noise and visual pollution.

Air pollution = emissions from vehicles and power stations
Noise pollution = Aircraft flying overhead etc
Visual pollution = Think along the lines of tourism for this one, so Benidorm for example in Spain where theres overdevelopment of hotels and high-density buildings. Visual pollution could also refer to derelict buildings in an area.

It can be reduced by installing catalytic converters in cars, using modern eco-friendly cars, finding alternatives to buring fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas e.g using wind power, tidal power, solar energy from solar panels installed in homes

In order to reduce visual pollution – it requires careful planning and consultation of urban and rural areas, in particular so that small villages do not lose their sense of character.

Encourage park ‘n’ ride schemes in city centres, and car sharing, toll charges e.g in London to deter ppl from using their cars. Encourage the use of public transport.

Mandy asks…

Need some Chemistry ideas?

What are some advances in materials that have led to some of the new alternative energy or green techologies?

Windmill Farms answers:

Your question was not it advances or advantages?
By the way I have an idea about advantages.

The Advantages of Green Energy seem obvious:
- Green energy is clean and can slow the effects of global warming by reducing CO2 emissions.
- Green energy is renewable unlike the natural gas and coal that are our primary sources now.
- It requires less maintenance that conventional equipment. Although the initial investment may be high, the long term savings would be significant.
- It can provide economic benefits to certain areas. For example, the leasing of land for wind farms could provide economic relief to many rural areas.

There are a few disadvantages that critics can point to.
- we have no control over the weather. The wind must blow and the sun must shine to use wind and solar technologies.
- The type of green energy used is to some degree determined by the geographic location, particularly for energies such as hydrothermal or geothermal.
- Some have even objected on aesthetic grounds, objecting to the site of a wind farm off shore.

James asks…

can anyone help me with my paper tomorrow?

i need information on wind energy and i couldnt find much about it. anyone know anything about it? can you help me?

Windmill Farms answers:


Wind is simple air in motion. It is caused by the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. Since the earth’s surface is made of very different types of land and water, it absorbs the sun’s heat at different rates.

During the day, the air above the land heats up more quickly than the air over water. The warm air over the land expands and rises, and the heavier, cooler air rushes in to take its place, creating winds. At night, the winds are reversed because the air cools more rapidly over land than over water.

In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the earth are created because the land near the earth’s equator is heated more by the sun than the land near the North and South Poles.

Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. Wind is called a renewable energy source because the wind will blow as long as the sun shines.

The History of Wind

Since ancient times, people have harnessed the winds energy. Over 5,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians used wind to sail ships on the Nile River. Later, people built windmills to grind wheat and other grains. The earliest known windmills were in Persia (Iran). These early windmills looked like large paddle wheels. Centuries later, the people of Holland improved the basic design of the windmill. They gave it propeller-type blades, still made with sails. Holland is famous for its windmills.

American colonists used windmills to grind wheat and corn, to pump water, and to cut wood at sawmills. As late as the 1920s, Americans used small windmills to generate electricity in rural areas without electric service. When power lines began to transport electricity to rural areas in the 1930s, local windmills were used less and less, though they can still be seen on some Western ranches.

The oil shortages of the 1970s changed the energy picture for the country and the world. It created an interest in alternative energy sources, paving the way for the re-entry of the windmill to generate electricity. In the early 1980s wind energy really took off in California, partly because of state policies that encouraged renewable energy sources. Support for wind development has since spread to other states, but California still produces more than twice as much wind energy as any other state.

The first offshore wind park in the United States is planned for an area off the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts (read an article about the Cape Cod Wind Project).

Like old fashioned windmills, today’s wind machines use blades to collect the wind’s kinetic energy. Windmills work because they slow down the speed of the wind. The wind flows over the airfoil shaped blades causing lift, like the effect on airplane wings, causing them to turn. The blades are connected to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator to produce electricity.

With the new wind machines, there is still the problem of what to do when the wind isn’t blowing. At those times, other types of power plants must be used to make electricity.

There are two types of wind machines used today: horizontal–axis wind machines and vertical-axis wind machines. Most windmills are the horizontal-axis type. One wind machine can produce 1.5 to 4.0 million kilowatthours (kWh) of electricity a year. That is enough electricity for to power 150-400 homes.


Horizontal-axis wind machines have blades like airplane propellers. A typical horizontal wind machine stands as tall as a 20-story building and has three blades that span 200 feet across. The largest wind machines in the world have blades longer than a football field! Wind machines stand tall and wide to capture more wind.

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Wind Energy Facts For Kids

Jenny asks…

Should Australia have a Carbon Tax?

What are your opinions and explain why. This is for help with a debate.
The debate question is “Australia Should have a Carbon Tax”
I need ideas for both sides

Windmill Farms answers:

There is way too much hysteria being created over this and it’s mainly due to the opposition leader Tony Abbott and the tax’s ridiculous coverage in mainstream media like News Corp papers and talkback radio. Be calm, look at the facts.

Climate change is man-made. This is not up for discussion. The only people who have authority on this issue are the researchers who have spent the last few decades studying the planet’s climate. For some strange reason the average person seems to think they’re scientists, saying they don’t think humans cause climate change, or that they don’t think the planet is getting warmer — where are these people’s credentials?

It’s not their fault though. No one has been kind enough to explain how we know for certain that we are the cause of climate change. But let me have a crack: of the causes contributing to the heating of the planet (and make no mistake – it is heating), the only thing to increase in direct relation to the temperature is CO2. It’s not the sun getting hotter or water vapour or anything like that. How do we know? Because we have measured both of the 2 layers that make our atmosphere. These are the troposphere which is closest to the Earth’s surface, and the thinner outer layer called the stratosphere. The troposphere is getting warmer, but the stratosphere which is closer to the sun is actually getting cooler. It’s not a natural cycle.

So we know that we need to do something about it.

It’s common to hear ‘why should Australia be the first country to put a price on carbon’ or ‘what about China and India’. Well, we wouldn’t be the first. South Korea, Costa Rica, many European nations, parts of the US and Canada already price carbon. Sweden has had a tax on carbon since 1990 and their economy continued to grow unhindered since that time.

It is China and India’s right to lift their people out of poverty into a middle class but guess what? India has a price on carbon and it’s on the table in China too.

The tax is not designed to make us use less energy as consumers. The idea is to push the energy industry to change their operations and deliver us the same power and resources but through sustainable means. The government is giving us hand-outs to compensate for increased prices. Those who earn more will go without compensation, but I personally guarantee that no one reading this will go hungry or end up on the streets as a result of the tax. In fact I bet you’ll still be able to afford holidays and other luxuries.

What about jobs? Polluting industries will be compensated to smooth the transition into the tax, while they work out how to adjust. Even with talk of the MRRT and now carbon tax, expenditure in the mining sector went up by 58% between 09/10 to 10/11. If you need another indicator, look at Gina Rinehart’s personal wealth which doubled from 5 billion to 10.3 billion in the last 12 months. Listen to these words carefully: the mining industry is in no danger of slowing down. They know it, they’re just feigning projected job-loss so they can increase their pay packages by the millions.

A lot of kids leave school in year 10, learn a trade, and head over to WA to work the mines or to a power station. This will still happen. But as renewable energy becomes more competitive in the marketplace, tradies and engineers will train with the goal of working for a wind or wave or solar energy company instead as the jobs in these sectors boom. Entrepreneurs will start new companies in green energy which will be a source of thousands of jobs. It will probably take a good generation, but eventually we will see renewable energy as of equal importance to our economy.

Here’s another plus of moving ‘ahead of the pack’. We have developed a butt-load of new technology because of the mining boom. For example, those trapped miners in Chile were rescued with technology developed right here in Australia. We have the chance to develop green technology here and sell it to the rest of the world.

Our planet only needs to heat up by another 2-3 degrees for food supplies to be drastically affected. We need to fix up our own backyard rather than following the US or China or Europe. Other nations will look to Australia’s lead for a change.

Please, don’t think of this as a political issue. This is not socialism. Australia never has and never will be Communist. Former Republican presidents in the US have warned about and made steps to act on global warming. Conservative British PM David Cameron has long been in favour or taxing carbon. Julia Gillard may not be the best PM, but Tony Abbott is duping the electorate into rallying against the tax by single-handedly turning the climate into a political football.

Lisa asks…

How familiar are you with using solar electricity to power a residential house?

I was wondering how much the average person knows about using the suns energy to power the average residential home…

Do you know of any countries that already use the sun to power homes?

please tell me where you are from as well please…


Windmill Farms answers:

Hey 0077, to answer your primary question, I am quite familiar with solar power. We’ve been powering our home from the wind and sun for 11 years now, and for the last 5 or 6 years, we’ve been going into the local schools and doing seminars on the subject. In some cases, the schools have loaded a bus with kids and brought them out to our home to see it first hand. As for your second question, the average homeowner knows about as much about solar power as they do about the furnace in their basement. Unfortunately, this is where the technology has fallen down. Lots of people want to build a new home, and talk to the builder about solar power. Frequently they are told, “Solar doesn’t work,” or, “Solar is prohibitively expensive.” Generally this is all they need to hear, and the panels are taken off the house plan.

Solar is not for everyone, or everyplace. Just because a home has solar panels does not mean they don’t have an electric bill, and that says nothing to the fact that a stand alone solar home that does not have access to utility power has to live with a finite amount of electricity. What do they do on a cloudy week? Most stand alone homes, like ours was, use both wind and solar. The reason for this is that the two compliment each other quite well. In the summer, we have long sunny days, but little wind. In the fall and winter, we have short cloudy days, and high winds. When you have a shortage of one, there is generally a surplus of the other. Trying to decide between the two technologies is like trying to decide between a 3 passenger pickup truck and an 8 passenger van as your sole family car. Each has its advantages, but it probably makes sense for a two car family to have one of each.

There is also the fact that lots of people like to grow their own tomatoes, even if it is cheaper to buy them at the market. They have to learn all about watering, bugs, soil ph and weeding. People who live in a solar powered home have a similar curse, they can tell you just how much sun shined last November, and how much power the stereo uses down to the last watthour. Any self respecting homeowner wouldn’t bother with the solar power, or the tomatoes, they would simply buy vegetables at the store, and electricity from the power company, and then sit home and complain about the price and quality of each. That used to be me, now I’m the other guy.

So no, the average homeowner does not know much about solar power, or furnaces. Most homes have furnaces, not many have solar panels. I wish they had both. In the 11 years we have had both, I can tell you that once solar power is installed, it is generally care free. We are on our third wind turbine here, and even though the last one is working better than the first two, it has had its moments. It has shut down 3 times, and had to be repaired twice. In all that time, my first solar panel has continued to make electricity, and I’ve never turned a screw on it or added a drop of oil. Yet, everyone I talk to about renewable energy wants to learn more about wind turbines it seems. They are neat, they move, they seem to have their own personality. They just require tall towers and routine maintenance. So does a car, and almost everyone has one of those too.

Many countries use solar power, almost all of them in fact, you just never hear about it, or see the panels in service. In the US alone there are over 100,000 homes and businesses using some level of solar power right now to operate at least some of their loads. That number is getting bigger as you read this by the way. I’ll list some sources you can check out below if you want to learn more. Take care 0077, Rudydoo

Robert asks…

What are greyhounds like to keep as pes? Are they good with kids. I know they arent good with cats?

Windmill Farms answers:

I am a greyhound adoption volunteer and foster parent and have been around many different ages and types of greys. My family currently has three of our own dogs and a four year old skin kid. We’ve never had a problem bringing a greyhound into our home, but we always supervise the child around the dogs.

We live in an urban area (we’re in a condo) and have a fairly large network of greyt friends in the area. Some of our friends live happily with cats. Some are happy being ‘only’ dogs. We have a playgroup that meets at a local dog park a couple of times a month, but many/most of the greys in our area get the majority of their excersise through leash walking.

Retired racing greyhounds are very low energy, low maintenance dogs. They have been nicknamed the ’45mph couch potato’ because they sleep 18-20 hours per day. Greys are sprinters – they have short bursts of energy and then they need to recuperate. The are a single coated short-haired breed who shed minimally(usually only seasonally). This means that they need coats in winter if you are in an area that gets cold. This also means that they cannot live outdoors.Greys are very quiet, they rarely bark.

Racing greyhounds are usually retired between 2-5 years of age. Greys are handled every day of their lives, from farm to training facility to racetrack so they are very docile, submissive dogs. A retired racer will always look to humans for leadership. They are taught leash manners and are easy to walk. They are crate trained, which translates very well into housebreaking. Contrary to popular belief the majority of racing greyhounds are treated very well during their careers (I can send you photos of a recent birthday party held in a racing kennel for one of the pups) and the majority (95-97%) retire to either the breeding shed or as pets. There are many adoption groups across the country who are working hard to make that number 100% in the near future.

Bringing a greyhound into your home can present some challenges. A dog coming straight from a track may never have seen mirrors, hardwood floors or stairs before. They have never had people touch them while they are asleep, and they never had any humans or dogs disturb them while they eat. They also may never have met other breeds of dogs. Most dogs adapt very well to living in a home and do it in a very short period of time.

Greyhounds are sighthounds. They can see a rabbit 1/2 mile away – and they were bred to be fast enough to catch that rabbit. For this reason they cannot be off leash unless they are in a fenced enclosure. When something (squirrel, rabbit, cat, plastic bag blowing in the wind) catches their eye they often react instinctually, even with the best of obedience training. Because they move so fast (45mph) very often a loose greyhound is a dead greyhound. They also do not do well on runs or retractable leashes – greys have broken their neck by trying to take off and being stopped. Their rate of acceleration is really awesome.

As to health problems, it is not true that they have hip problems. In fact greyhounds are the only large breed that does not suffer from hip dysplasia. This is because they have been bred exclusively for competition, not for looks. Musculo-skeletar imperfectsion DO NOT get bred on period. They also have a longer lifespan than many other large breeds, averaging 12-14 years. Some dogs retire with injuries and these dogs may be prone to arthritis as they age, but your adoption group would be able to tell you about specific problems that may come with the dog you acquire. It is true that greyhounds (and all sighthounds) are susceptible to complications from anasthesia. This is because there low body fat ratio means that when the anasthesia has been applied it effects them much sooner and they don’t need as much as your average breed.

For more information about the breed, or to find an adoption group in your area check out . If you want more specific information please feel free to e-mail me.

Betty asks…

Why is society and humanity such a festering, stinking, disgusting piece of utter sh!t?

We live in a world where someone will walk into an elementary school and gun kids down, we live in a world where banks give themselves millions in bonuses while the rest of us get our pensions and retirements taken away. I live in a country where most of the jobs are shipped to China so that some fat, piece of crap CEO can pay the sweat shop slaves lower wages, and sell people low quality crap. We live in a world where everyone is obsessed with Iphones, but did you know the shops in China actually have suicide nets around the building to stop workers from jumping off the building to commit suicide because they live and work in such horrible conditions making your oh so precious Iphone?
Also, the justice system is a joke in my country, we have the biggest population of prisoners compared to any other country, and most of them aren’t even felons, just someone who smoked weed or didn’t pay a parking ticket, yet the prisons are flooded with them, want to know why? because big mega banks invest in prisons and make money off of people going to jail, it’s called “for profit prisons” look it up.

Oh and real love and respect doesn’t exist anymore by the way, it’s all about casual sex, hookups, one night stands….etc, just absolute moral decay, nothing sacred and true anymore. Everything is about lies, deceit, fraud, shallowness and bullshit.
I could go on all day listing all the things that are wrong with this society, and no it’s not because i’m negative or a pessimist, it’s because in a very real sense, the bad outweighs the good in this world. It’s just the cold hard truth, there is more bad stuff happening in this world right now than there is good.
hoovarted: Oh so i’m bad and wrong because I don’t like rich elite banks destroying the middle class? that’s my problem? and am I also bad and wrong because I don’t like a culture that revolves around materialism instead of knowledge? Please, go on, I can tell you want to turn this around on me to make a joke of me but it’s not gonna happen buddy.
Bro: That’s funny, my mental state is the exact opposite to that of someone who smoked weed. They are calm and relaxed, I am pissed and aggressive.
EP: “Ignorance is bliss” – I am not ignorant, I pay attention to and engage in the world around me, only to find, surprise surprise, it kind of sucks. And no, i’m sorry but I refuse to go off in my own little happy world in my head just because its uncomfortable to deal with the truth.
EP: You seem to be focusing more on the fact that i’m unhappy with this stuff, instead of whats actually making me unhappy. Let me put it to you like this, if I was pissed off because my shower stopped working or my TV broke, it would be ridiculous of me to try and spread that unhappiness to other people because my shower and TV really have nothing to do with them and does not effect their lives in any profound way. But if banks are setting up real estate and mortgage frauds for thousands of people across the U.S., that’s not just my problem, thats everybody’s problem. I would be right to spread my distaste and unhappiness about it, so that something can be done to change it, especially if everyone else doesn’t seem to care or notice and is letting themselves get scammed and used. It’s not about my opinion, it’s about basic human rights.
EP: So basically what you’re saying is, if it’s not happening to you, who gives a crap. Even if someones human rights are being violated, if it aint happening to you, who cares right? If your neighbors were being rounded up and being put in concentration camps, its not you so who cares, it’s their misery not yours. Your mom gets cancer? not me so I don’t care. Give me a break. That’s a great excuse if you want to be a lazy, selfish excuse for a human.
Some things you can’t change and there is no use getting worked up about it, but others it is your duty to contribute and change for the benefit of everyone including yourself. Hate to break it to you but life is not just about you and your pleasure.
EP: I am miserable because I WANT the world to be a fair and just place, and the fact that it’s not upsets me. I don’t like misery for the sake of misery.

Windmill Farms answers:

Recognizing that there is something terribly wrong in this world, is the first and big step in making a difference. THERE IS NOTHING WRONG WITH YOU. In fact, I totally understand where you’re coming from, and I respect the fact that you are aware, that WE, as human beings, deserve so much BETTER.

People are programmed to believe that this world we live in is NATURAL, and nothing can ever be done. You can’t really blame them. The world has been this way for such a long time. They don’t even realize that, WE, the people, have the true power to actually change things and make this world a much better place with NO ONE left behind.

Have you ever wondered why the good things in this world are deprived from the middle class to low class people? Take electric cars and hybrid vehicles for example. These vehicles are good for the environment, and the overall health of the people. However, they are practically hardly even affordable to the majority of people. In fact, why not just make all vehicles electric/hybrid, instead of relying on gas? Because by doing so, gas companies lose profit. The same goes for solar energies, wind energies, wave energies etc. In this world, you need scarcity to make money. Therefore, poverty is necessary for the economy, because for a very long time, NOT becoming poor had been the ultimate incentive of human beings. Because of this we become greedy and are forced to do selfish things.

But it doesn’t even have to be that way. If human beings were to live as equals, NOT DRIVEN BY COMPETITION, then our incentive would be working as one, and making this world a better place, not just for OURSELVES, but for each other. We learn to unite as the way it’s should have been and should be.

Anyway, I don’t want to be the one to “preach”. I still believe in humanity. It’s gonna take some time, but it’s because of people like yourself, who is actually brave enough to question the reality of things, that makes me believe that revolution is possible. Do not lose hope. In fact, use this desire for justice to fuel your passion in changing the world.

If you truly are determine to find the answers, then I recommend watching this documentary.
I promise you it will open your eyes, mind, and heart. Http://

Good luck on your journey!

P.S If you do decide to watch the video, I would be very much interested in hearing your thoughts on it, so please, do leave me a message when you can :) If not, no worries. I totally respect that.

Daniel asks…

Why is everyone yapping about nuclear energy being dangerous?

Now you can already see these massive protests in Germany. How many have died from nuclear power this year or last year? How about deaths from lung cancer & lung damage caused by burning coal & gasoline? 2 million per year? Shall we count respiratory diseases too? How about methylmercury in fish? I don’t eat tuna anymore. That’s how poisonous it is. It’s not radioactive. It’s neuropoisonous. Mercury levels will increase 2x in the next 50 years and then certain fish will be banned from consumption. Say goodbye to longtail tuna (thunnus tonggol). Godspeed! Zai jian! Zai jian!

When was the last time you were dangerously exposed to radiation? I was born two years after Chernobyl and x-rays are safe, so nevah! Most of us will never be, yet you’re breathing polluted air right now. Hell, you’re even breathing fecal bacterias from the toilet that are floating in the air. Even if you live on the countryside, the wind is blowing pollution from big cities, highways & industrial areas every possible day. When was the last time wind blew some radioactive decay towards you? Hell, you’re probably getting some wind from the landfill of a thousand decomposing banana peels & tampons.

Don’t be an ignorant green hippy. It’s impossible to raise enough money to build enough wind & solar farms that would replace all nuclear & coal power plants, and neither is geothermal power the answer due to CO2, methane & hydrogen sulfide emissions. Then the air would smell like egg farts. Lol. What’s that? Wave power? Well that’s just expensive and not advanced enough. It’s way too easy to dump in loads of money in a project and build something. Nuclear is an established technology that makes good investments! Yeah, Trina Solar (TSL) is a good stock if you went in it in 2009, but until nuclear fusion reactors start producing more energy than they consume, we will have to use something that is very efficient & cheaper cause then the poor will complain over bills. Rich richer, poor poorer isn’t the future. Nuclear is :D

Yeah, nuclear power is dangerous but statistically it’s one of the safest. Wind turbines kill bats & god forbid if the safety system fails and they launch an ice bomb towards you in winter. Open your eyes. Statistics & fact-checking is really amazing. Look. In Britain alcohol kills more people than illegal drugs combined, sports kill more kids than school shootings and tweety the bird is actually a male. Lol. Statistically ecstasy is safer than guinness, so pop a pill on the next holiday :D at least you’ll remember the night and you won’t have a hangover.

Don’t listen to what Greenfreaks or Friends of the Earth have to say about nuclear. You don’t have to agree with someone that scares you with scary facts while they can’t understand science themselves. They even said to the president of Zambia that donated GM corn is poisonous and he refused to import the aid! Maybe people need to see a documentary with a nuclear physicist Jim Al-khalili instead of being frightened & paranoid of uranium. Nuclear is green enough, so let ur leightbalb shain bay da powah of yuraniem :D What’s the power level? Over 9000!

When there’s still coal used, is there any other reason not to use nuclear? Nuclear waste? Well radioactivity will diminish over time. Will methylmercury disappear from the seas and make tuna safe to eat? Now I eat low-mercury fish that I haven’t heard of before. What are japanese going to eat beside rice shaped like hello kitty?

Windmill Farms answers:

It’s like the frog-in-boiling-water analogy.

Coal and other fossil fuels cause damage slowly, so people don’t even notice the change. Chernobyl was a major disaster, so people panicked.
Nuclear disasters make for more exciting movies than slow poisoning does, so it’s easier to stir up uninformed popular opinion.

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Renewable Energy

William asks…

what are renewable energy sources?

what is the exact break down of a renewable energy source? J.A

Windmill Farms answers:

A renewable energy source is one that is not dependent on a finite supply of energy, like our fossil fuels (oil and natural gas). In that sense, they are sustainable and can last indefinitely, and are really the ideal solution to our declining oil reserves.

Some types of renewable energies I’ve heard about are:

Solar – capturing the sun’s energy via photovoltaic panels. These are effective especially on tops of buildings or deserts where there is no life.

Wind – the turbines on windy hills especially. The drawback is that they are dangerous to birds.

Geothermal – Where the deep earth is heating water from magma.

Waves – I think this is theoretical, but somehow the energy from wave motion could be captured.

Tidal – Capturing energy from coastal areas between low and high tides.

Ethanol – Using the sunlight captured by plants such as corn and converting their fruit (corn kernels) into energy products

Hydroelectric – Turbines driven by water falling at dams from a higher level to a lower one.

Some might say nuclear is renewable, but I don’t think so because of all the radioactive wastes and the inherent dangers of operating a nuclear plant which have to come to reality (witness Chernobyl for the top horror story), plus diversions to make nuclear weapons.

Anyway, here are some sources of renewable energy that I just thought of off the top of my head. There are probably others. Hope this helps.

Donna asks…

renewable energy?

ok, so I’m preparing a speech on renewable energy. Primarily solar energy. . . . can anyone give me some facts and figures to incorporate, perhaps some angles I havn’t thought of yet? I plan on appealing to the emotional side of saving the environment and the logical side of saving money on your monthly energy bill (it’s to be a persuasive speech) . . . so perhaps the efficiency rating of solar panels, or that average energy produced by wind? or even better if someone has some figures on the california rebates given for solar panel installation. Thanks for the assistance :-D

Windmill Farms answers:

Solar Cell – Renewable and Cleanest Energy Source:

Solar cell is a semiconductor device that converts the energy of sunlight into electric energy. These are also called ‘photovoltaic cell’. Solar cells do not use chemical reactions to produce electric power, and they have no moving parts.

Photovoltaic solar cells are thin silicon disks that convert sunlight into electricity. These disks act as energy sources for a wide variety of uses, including: calculators and other small devices; telecommunications; rooftop panels on individual houses; and for lighting, pumping, and medical refrigeration for villages in developing countries. In large arrays, which may contain many thousands of individual cells, they can function as central electric power stations analogous to nuclear, coal-, or oil-fired power plants. Arrays of solar cells are also used to power satellites; because they have no moving parts that could require service or fuels that would require replenishment, solar cells are ideal for providing power in space.

A. Most photovoltaic cells consist of a semiconductor pn junction, in which electron-hole pairs produced by absorbed radiation are separated by the internal electric field in the junction to generate a current, a voltage, or both, at the device terminals. Under open-circuit conditions (current I = 0) the terminal voltage increases with increasing light intensity, and under short-circuit conditions (voltage V = 0) the magnitude of the current increases with increasing light intensity. When the current is negative and the voltage is positive, the photovoltaic cell delivers power to the external circuit.

B. Characteristics of a Solar Cell – The usable voltage from solar cells depend on the semiconductor material. In silicon it amounts to approximately 0.5 V. Terminal voltages is only weakly dependent on light radiation, while the current intensity increases with higher luminosity. A 100 cm² silicon cell, for example, reaches a maximum current intensity of approximately 2 A when radiated by 1000 W/m². The output (product of electricity and voltage) of a solar cell is temperature dependent. Higher cell temperatures lead to lower output, and hence to lower efficiency. The level of efficiency indicates how much of the radiated quantity of light is converted into useable electrical energy.

C. Cell Types: One can distinguish three cell types according to the type of crystal: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous. To produce a monocrystalline silicon cell, absolutely pure semiconducting material is necessary. Monocrystalline rods are extracted from melted silicon and then sawed into thin plates. This production process guarantees a relatively high level of efficiency.

The production of polycrystalline cells is more cost-efficient. In this process, liquid silicon is poured into blocks that are subsequently sawed into plates. During solidification of the material, crystal structures of varying sizes are formed, at whose borders defects emerge. As a result of this crystal defect, the solar cell is less efficient.
If a silicon film is deposited on glass or another substrate material, this is a so-called amorphous or thin layer cell. The layer thickness amounts to less than 1µm (thickness of a human hair: 50-100 µm), so the production costs are lower due to the low material costs. However, the efficiency of amorphous cells is much lower than that of the other two cell types. Because of this, they are primarily used in low power equipment (watches, pocket calculators) or as facade elements.

D. Efficiency: Solar cell efficiencies vary from 6% for amorphous silicon-based solar cells to 42.8% with multiple-junction research lab cells. Solar cell energy conversion efficiencies for commercially available multicrystalline Si solar cells are around 14-16%. The highest efficiency cells have not always been the most economical — for example a 30% efficient multijunction cell based on exotic materials such as gallium arsenide or indium selenide and produced in low volume might well cost one hundred times as much as an 8% efficient amorphous silicon cell in mass production, while only delivering about four times the electrical power.
To make practical use of the solar-generated energy, the electricity is most often fed into the electricity grid using inverters (grid-connected PV systems); in stand alone systems, batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed immediately.

E. Advantages of solar energy: Solar cells are long lasting sources of energy which can be used almost anywhere. They are particularly useful where there is no national grid and also where there are no people such as remote site water pumping or in space. Solar cells provide cost effective solutions to energy problems in places where there is no mains electricity. Solar cells are also totally silent and non-polluting. As they have no moving parts they require little maintenance and have a long lifetime. Compared to other renewable sources they also possess many advantages; wind and water power rely on turbines which are noisy, expensive and liable to breaking down.

Rooftop power is a good way of supplying energy to a growing community. More cells can be added to homes and businesses as the community grows so that energy generation is in line with demand. Many large scale systems currently end up over generating to ensure that everyone has enough. Solar cells can also be installed in a distributed fashion, i.e. They don’t need large scale installations. Solar cells can easily be installed on roofs, which mean no new space is needed and each user can quietly generate their own energy.

F. Disadvantages of solar cells: The main disadvantage of solar energy is the initial cost. Most types of solar cell require large areas of land to achieve average efficiency. Air pollution and weather can also have a large effect on the efficiency of the cells. The silicon used is also very expensive and the problem of nocturnal down times means solar cells can only ever generate during the daytime. Solar energy is currently thought to cost about twice as much as traditional sources (coal, oil etc). Obviously, as fossil fuel reserves become depleted, their cost will rise until a point is reached where solar cells become an economically viable source of energy. When this occurs, massive investment will be able to further increase their efficiency and lower their cost.

For further information please refer

Thomas asks…

Is non conventional energy same as renewable energy?

Windmill Farms answers:

Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy, are sources that are continuously
replenished by natural processes. For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy – bio-fuels grown
sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of renewable energy sources.

Laura asks…

What’s the controversy with Renewable Energy?

I have to give a presentation on the controversial topic renewable energy and i wanted to know exactly what is controversial about it? I am specifically doing wind energy so anything specifically about that would help also. thanks.

Windmill Farms answers:

Buying a renewable-energy credit allows an individual or business to financially support wind energy even if it is not available locally. The credits technically represent the environmental benefits of using renewable energy instead of traditionally produced power.

To understand how the complicated concept works, it’s helpful to realize that the various attributes associated with producing electricity can be separated into partsIn the case of wind power, there is the actual electricity generated — which is fed into a power grid where it is mixed with electricity that may have been generated by coal, natural

gas or even nuclear reactions — and there are the environmental benefits of the way the electricity is produced.

Unlike burning fossil fuels, wind generation does not produce dangerous particulates, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide. Renewable-energy certificates represent the value of not dumping those pollutants into the atmosphere.

Separating the electricity from the environmental benefits allows people who are actually receiving the wind power — but who don’t want to pay the added costs of renewable energy — to pay the same rate they would pay for traditionally generated electricity. It also gives people who do not have direct access to wind-generated power the ability to purchase renewable-energy credits, which helps the wind company to stay competitive even without willing customers in the area of the wind farm.

One renewable-energy credit is created for each kilowatt-hour of energy generated from a wind farm. Those credits are often sold by the wind farm to a third-party broker, who then resells it to customers for a profit.

Businesses or residents who buy the same number of kilowatt-hours’ worth of renewable-energy credits that they use each month often say they are 100 percent wind-powered. The electricity they actually are using, however, probably comes from traditional sources, such as coal or natural gas.

What the critics are saying:

Renewable-energy credits are just a form of checkbook environmentalism, which allow people with money to soothe their consciences without making any real efforts to reduce environmental problems.

Many companies aren’t transparent about where the RECs are coming from and how much of the consumer’s money actually makes it back to the wind farm.

They allow the middle man to make a handsome profit without substantially benefiting the wind farms.

They advertise benefits that aren’t real in the short term — like eliminating carbon dioxide and adding new wind power to the grid.

What supporters are saying:

Renewable-energy credits provide important revenue for wind farms, which must compete with the heavily subsidized oil and gas industry.

They are a first step for the concerned public in the fight against greenhouse gases — they give the individual some power instead of waiting for the local utility to develop renewable energy.

Once you’ve taken all the energy-efficiency measures you can, it makes sense to buy credits to cover the electricity you have to use.

They are bringing the discussion about wind energy into the mainstream dialogue.

Some big names

buying RECs:

The University of Colorado purchased 11.2 million kilowatt-hours’ worth of RECs from Community Energy, which roughly equates to between 9 percent and 12 percent of the school’s energy use.

Vail Resorts, based in Broomfield, bought 152 million kilowatt-hours from Renewable Choice Energy, which officials say offsets 100 percent of the conventionally produced electricity they burn at all five of their mountain resorts in a year.

Whole Foods Market purchased 458 million kilowatt-hours to offset all the energy used in its stores, facilities, bake houses, distribution centers, regional offices and national headquarters in the United States and Canada.

Susan asks…

What is Renewable Energy?

In your opinion what is Renewable Energy, and what can you do in your life to make things easier for you to live by using Renewable Energy?

Windmill Farms answers:

Renewable energy is an energy sorce that can grow back as a faster rate and you use it. Fossil fuels [coal, oil, and natural gas] are not renewable resources. Things like trees, water, and animals are renewable energy sources.
Things that you can use that is powered by renewable engery sorces are things like solar panels and wind mills.

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Wind Power For Homes

Sharon asks…

What size building can one Wind Turbine power?

How large of a building can one average sized wind turbine power? I don’t know what all of the energy vocab means. Is it closer to a small house or apartment or more like a whole school?

Windmill Farms answers:

A single wind turbine (1.5 MW, GE) would provide enough power to power a town (about 400 homes, or 2 large industrial businesses.) A single wind turbine would power about 20 schools.

Jenny asks…

How do I make home made power?

How do I make home made electricity with solar power or a wind generator? I’ve been looking into using wind and solar energy to power my home, reduce electricity consumption and lower my carbon footprint. I’ve looked into solar hot water systems and home wind generators, but what’s the most efficient way to reduce my energy consumption?

Windmill Farms answers:

Wind generators and solar panels can be expensive, and can take years before they pay for themselves. Often it uses so much CO2 to make a solar panel or wind generator that they can actually increase your carbon foot print, not reduce it. I’ve found that the best way to create home made power is from home made equipment, it’s actually surprisingly straight forward and a fraction of the cost. I used this guide: to create a simple wind generator which has seen my energy costs drastically reduced.

Sandra asks…

Would you buy a package deal to wind power your home ?

I mean,one price and includes instalation of ALL compoents, wireing to code, trenching, location, and erecting the wind mill it self.

Windmill Farms answers:

I’ve been doing a lot of research about residential wind power and I’m not sure what I’d do if I was in the right situation to invest in wind power. The approach you’re asking about is the way I would usually do things, but the costs are so high.

From what I’ve read, the Skystream 3.7 Residential Wind Turbine will cost approximately $5,500.00 USD, but when installation costs are factored in, the initial investment will typically be in the range of $12,000 USD to $15,000 USD. Rebates and incentives will reduce the purchase price in some areas, but that’s a lot of money.

The other option is to build your own turbine to wind power your home. I am not much of a do-it-yourselfer, but the cost savings are just too large to ignore. You can purchase instructions for taking on this type of a project from various sources. The instructions seem to range in price from $10-$50 and they promise the materials will cost less than $200. Even if it takes you a couple of weekends to complete the project and it ends up costing twice as much to build the product, that’s quite a difference in costs!

I don’t know if this has been helpful or not, but I’ll include a link to my Residential Wind Turbine Blog where I’ve been trying to collect data about the various options available.

I’m sure you’ll make the right decision on which way you should go.

Paul asks…

How should I go about building my own home?

I have been purchasing and reading books on natural building techniques over the past month, and it seems to be exactly what I would like to do in my lifetime. What locations in the U.S. would be most ideal for a house with the following utilizations and materials:

-Solar power (panels), heating (good sunshine, heat)
-Earthbag building for house
-Wind power
-Radiant heating in the floor
-Rainwater collection and storage (good rainfall)
-Composting toilet
-Quality soil for gardening and perhaps livestock/animals

Thank you in advance.

Windmill Farms answers:

Unless you’ve got construction experience building a house on your own might not be the best idea. Your best bet is to do some research about location and then find a contractor that is familiar with “green” building techniques and let him do the work. One person building a house is a years long project even if you are familiar with the myriad construction trades involved in doing it.

Richard asks…

How to make wind mill at home?

I understand that to make wind power, I need to make a wind mill. But How do I make a wind mill? Can Someone teach or advice me on it?

Windmill Farms answers:

Hey, making wind mill is not tough if you know the right way.

I have made two myself and you should take a look at

for guides and instructions.

That is what I use to make my own wind mill

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Is Wind Power Actually Green

Sandy asks…

Are you thinking about going green?

Hybrid cars, solar panels, etc.? Why?

Windmill Farms answers:


Let me start off by saying we (my family and I) live completely, 100% “off of the grid and are completely self sufficient”

The house is built utilizing natures natural elements, in the shape of an octagon with 8ft wide arch doors on every wall to catch every angle of wind (typical 4 sided homes have half the chance as one with 8 sides. A circle being the most efficient design). Woodburning stoves, solar chimney, solar AC, solar heating, solar water heating (pool and home), solar stove, solar power, wind power, hydrogen powered back up generator, hydrogen back up water heater, hydrogen stove, 2 hydrogen powered trucks, 1 EV (electric vehicle) and satellite internet.

We also built many green small cabins on the ranch that we offer to family, friends and our on-site off-grid workshop guests, including one straw bale, one papercrete, earth bag and adobe, one cob and cordwood, one underground and rammed earth, one log and post and beam and one rock. Each one actually started as a test for what the main house would be and were later finished and turned into guest cabins. I later wrote a guide on how to build with alternative materials using alternative methods for next to nothing.

We raise meat and milk goats, chickens for meat and eggs, ducks for meat and eggs, trap havilina (wild boar pig), rabbit, quail. Brew our own beer from home grown products, preserve our fruits, vegetables, etc. Smoke and jerky the meat, make our own soap, cheese.

There are no utility lines, no water lines, no roads, tv, cell service, etc. On our ranch. EVERYTHING needed is produced here. All electricity comes from 27 solar panels, 2 main wind gens and a back hydrogen generator if needed (typically we can last 9 days with all luxuries of sunless windless weather, hasn’t happened yet). Water is caught and storaged from the rain. Hot water is made with solar batch water heaters with an on-demand hydrogen hot water heater as backup. Even our vehicles use alternative energy (2 hydrogen trucks, 1 EV electric vehicle converted). Because of this we have no bills, no debt and no mortgage.

Anyone interested can check it out at..

Www agua-luna com

Hope this helped, feel free to contact me personally if you have any questions if you’d like assistance in making your first self sufficient steps, I’m willing to walk you step by step threw the process. I’ve written several how-to DIY guides available at www agua-luna com on the subject. I also offer online and on-site workshops, seminars and internships to help others help the environment.

Dan Martin
Living 100% on Alternative & Author of How One Simple Yet Incredibly Powerful Resource Is Transforming The Lives of Regular People From All Over The World… Instantly Elevating Their Income & Lowering Their Debt, While Saving The Environment by Using FREE ENERGY… All With Just One Click of A Mouse…For more info Visit:

www AGUA-LUNA com
Stop Global Warming, Receive a FREE Solar Panels Now!!!

Maria asks…

How are greener products helping?

-Specific examples in detail: An overview of the latest techniques, initiative, or industry standards related to greener products (Products helping the environment).
-What are some careers and jobs related to this field (greener products)?

Windmill Farms answers:

They make a few richer.

Generation costs (excluding transmission and maintenance costs)
Coal $0.02 per KWH
Gas $ 0.03 per KWH
Wind and solar $2.40 per KWH ( actual costs – those that are getting a check each month is because their neighbors are paying for it, they are reimbursed the full $0.10 to 0.12 per KWH, and the government takes tax money from others to pay the cost differences to buy and install the systems.

“Green” products generally are not actually “Green.” Most are a marketing ploy.
Http:// (and if CNN shows flaws, it has to be bad)

This is (in the vernacular) the tip of the iceberg.

The whole AGW/ACC issue is actually not what it appears to be either.
AGW/ACC is more about political power and money. Read the documents – in their own words in its entirety unedited.


They use phrases like “Shared Vision”
(excerpts from the first ten pages alone of the 181 pages)
Note: The quotes were added to show their agenda purpose and objective in the statements

PP.3 Acknowledging the important role of the Kyoto Protocol in contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention, and the need to “broaden the legal commitments under the Convention.” Substantial reductions of GHG emissions from Annex I countries should be agreed,
TRANSLATION: It is about the political power.

PP.6 Intending to renew and strengthen “the global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among Parties, according to the principles of the Convention.”
TRANSLATION: One World Government

PP.13 Recognizing that current and potential climate change impacts “require a shift in the global investment patterns and that criteria for financing allocation shall clearly respond to the priorities identified by the international community”, with climate change stabilization being one of these priorities.
TRANSLATION: It is all about their control over the money.

PP.15 “Further acknowledging that developed countries have a historical responsibility for their disproportionate contribution to the causes and consequences of climate change, reflecting their disproportionate historical use of a shared global carbon space since 1850 as well as their proposed continuing disproportionate use of the remaining global carbon space.”
TRANSLATION: Before there can be a victim, there has to be a villain Developed nations are the villain That underdeveloped nations have been fighting among themselves – it is about the money and power – they have to take from those that have been productive, keep a bunch for themselves, and hand some to their friends and those they use in the political game they are playing.

This annex contains text from paragraphs 1–17 (pages 5–21) of the revised negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.1), as reordered and consolidated by Parties and the facilitator of the informal group on “shared vision.” The approach to consolidation emerged from informal exchanges among Parties and was presented to the informal group on shared vision for proposals for preambular paragraphs 1–6 and paragraphs 1–4. After the informal meeting, the same approach was applied by the facilitator to the remaining proposals.
TRANSLATION: This Treaty is all about the current 27 secret totalitarian dictator Commissars to have absolute control over the worlds societies and economies. Nothing more. AGW/ACC is the excuse they are using to achieve their “Shared Vision’ goal.

Betty asks…

Why should we choose nuclear power?

I need to know in a detailed explanation why we should use nuclear power instead of any other alternatives like coal, or wind power. I need as much information as possible on why nuclear power is good, and all the positives of nuclear power, as detailed as possible please!

Windmill Farms answers:

Here are some thoughts but the research is down to you.

Coal is in finite supply. It will run out one day.
Some countries have to import much/most of their coal. That means their energy supply is subject to the whims of other countries or transport unions or serious bad weather. This is known as a lack of energy security.
Coal produces a lot of pollution. It is a very dirty fuel. The main problem pollutant is said to be carbon dioxide which is said to contribute to climate change due to environmental warming. There is some debate about the numbers but the science supports the ideas.
To avoid releasing ‘fossil’ carbon dioxide, coal burning power stations can be converted to burn biomass (mainly wood which may be scrap wood). That would make them pretty ‘green’ but, in reality, the supply of biomass is inadequate for large scale conversion of furnaces.

The wind will never run out and is free of charge and does not need to be imported.
The trouble is that wind is unreliable, blowing one minute and not the next. That is no good if you are trying to use your computer or operate air traffic control systems or even just boiling a kettle of water. You need full power all the time. We all do. Wind can’t do that.
Wind power does not save carbon dioxide or fuel imports. Wind power is unreliable but we can’t live with unreliable electricity supplies so we have to have conventional power stations running in the background, burning fuel unproductively, just so they are ready to switch-in at a moment’s notice every time the wind drops.
The energy output of wind farms is over stated. They state the maximum power it is capable of producing but they never actually produce it. The best in the world manage to produce an average of about 20% of their claimed output. So, when they say a wind farm will provide electricity for 100,000 homes, we know it will really only provide electricity for 20,000 … And then only some of the time.
The wind is free – so why do we pay at least twice as much for electricity from wind farms than we pay for electricity from generators burning expensive fuel? The answer is the outrageous level of subsidy paid to wind farm developers and operators. Wind farms are a mechanism to reap subsidy AT OUR EXPENSE rather than viable, economical energy sources.
During a recent cold spell in the UK, wind farms that claim to be able to provide about 10% of the nation’s electricity actually provided less that 0.5%. When we need them most, they don’t work because either the wind has dropped or because the turbines are iced-up.
Wind power is not a viable core energy source, is not reliable, is too expensive, does not save the pollution claimed and does not provide energy security.

Nuclear power is expensive to produce because of the safety implications in handling nuclear fuel and building safe reactors. The up-front costs are massive, but so is the energy output.
Nuclear power provides reliable base load (predicted smooth supply) of electricity. It is an established, proven technology, and provides a high degree of energy security.
Nuclear power is low-polluting, much less than burning coal, but we need to take into account the high energy consumption in building the reactor and refining the fuel so nuclear is not perfect.
There are weaknesses in that nuclear plants cannot vary their output very quickly in response to sudden spikes of demand so they need to be used alongside ‘quick response’ electricity supplies such as hydro-electric systems.
Other weaknesses are the safety and security risks of removing and disposing of used nuclear fuel. It is an expensive process and some countries have yet to agree how they will provide safe, long-term storage for spent fuel that will remain radioactive for thousands of years. Underground storage in disused mines is one option.
Nuclear power plants take a long time to build and may face objections from nearby communities but they are the best bet for reliable, low polluting, long term, base-load electricity supply and national energy security.

Lizzie asks…

in the legend of zelda the wind waker?

how do you get a picture of the green frog on the cloud or the red frog?

Windmill Farms answers:

None of these answers are right. You have to become Lenzo’s appentice on Windfall island to get the pictures. Talk to Lenzo and show him your Pictograph Box that you got from Tingle’s cell near Toto the dancer (the guy dancing near the gravestone). When you show Lenzo the pictograph box, he’ll ask you to be his apprentice. Accept and do the missions he asks of you. First, you have to find the lovestruck letter sender. Find the guy in red that walks all about town. He has greenish hair and a mustache and constantly talks about the Rito Postmen. Find a high spot in town that puts you in sight of the mailbox and wait. When the guy in red finally reaches the mailbox after twenty minutes of walking, zoom in to get the picture. But be careful, he looks around for about three seconds before actually putting the letter into the mailbox. Take the picture when he actually puts the letter in. You have about three seconds. Show the perfect picture to Lenzo and he’ll move on to the next project. Find the coward. This is easy. Just go to the cafe in the day. You’ll see Garson or whatever his name is there. He’s balding and wears green. Just make a loud sound near him, either by rolling into his table or the wall or by knocking silverware off of the counter. Take out your Pictograph Box and take a photo of his face. Show it to Lenzo and you’ll have your final task. The Anonymous Lovers. You have to take a picture of two people that glance at each other each day for about 2 seconds. The two people are the walking guy that power walks through town constantly, and the lady near the mini-game building that talks about your friend on Outset that carries jars. The guy has orange hair and wears a striped shirt and green. The lady wears orange and has blueish hair. Just stand near the school with your camera out and zoom in. It takes a while for the walking guy to reach the orange lady, bout another 20 minutes. When the two finally get close to each other, they look at each for about 2 seconds. Take the picture there or risk waiting another 20 minutes. When you finally get the picture, show it Lenzo and you’ll be his apprentice. Now go to Forest Haven and use a bottle to capture a firefly. You can tell when you found a firefly because they hang out near the wall and shine a light on the wall. Capture it in a bottle and bring it back to Lenzo. He’ll make your pictobox a deluxe pictobox. You can now take color photos. Now, if you didn’t beat the Tower of the Gods yet, do so. After you do, go back to Lenzo at night. He’ll offer you one of his rare pictographs. They cost 50 rupees each but who cares. He gets a different pictograph each night. Two of those pictographs are Zephos the Green Frog God of Wind, and Cyclos the Red Frog God of Cyclones. There you go, you got yourself the pictures. It’s a long process, but you can do all the apprentice stuff the first time you’re on Windfall, when you get the sail. Hope this helps. Good Luck with everything.

Sandra asks…

What is Canada currently doing to reduce green house gas emissions?

What is their progress and what are they trying to do

Windmill Farms answers:

Wind turbines mostly, some solar panels, but really, as the home of the single biggest polluting project on the face of the planet (tar sands), and the fact that we not only have missed our Kyoto Protocol levels but actually tried to DERAIL the talks in Coppenhagen on climate change action, all I can say is not nearly enough. Fat chance anything will be done with Harper in power too.

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Uses Of Wind Energy In Rural Areas

Ken asks…

What are the differences between a wind turbine and a windmill?

Expand on the basic differences like:

- History
- Basic principle of operation
- Purpose
- Number of blades
- Relationship b/w RPM and torque
- Usual tower height
- Usual output power
- Blade cross section
- Aerodynamics of the blades of rotor
- Structure of tower

Windmill Farms answers:

Windmills have been around for a long time. The first windmill had vertical shafts and were reportedly built in Persia around the 7th century BC for the second caliph, Umar Ibn Al-Khttab. Made of six to twelve sails covered in fabric or palm leaves, they were used to grind corn and draw up water. A similar type of vertical shaft windmill can also be found in 13th century China.

In Europe

A windmill in Haarlem, Netherlands
The windmills of Kinderdijk, the NetherlandsIn Europe, windmills were developed in the Middle Ages. The earliest mills were probably grinding mills. They were mounted on city walls and could not be turned into the wind. The earliest known examples date from early 12th century Paris. Because fixed mills did not suffice for regions with changing wind directions, mill types that could be turned into the wind were developed. With some subsequent development mills became versatile in windy regions for all kind of industry, most notably grain grinding mills, sawmills (late 16th century), threshing, and, by applying Archimedes’ screws, pumping mills.

They soon became the major energy source in the low lands, where the older watermills could hardly operate due to the lack of height difference in the water ways. The pumping mills allowed the drainage of the Dutch wetlands to claim new land, polders. By continuously pumping water out to the rivers, land below sea level could be created. The earliest Dutch polders date from the middle ages, the first lake was emptied by Jan Leeghwater from 1607. To claim ever more land it became necessary to build series of mills (molengang, mill pace), because an Archimedes screw can only efficiently pump water for a limited height. Each mill pumps water into a higher reservoir, with the last pumping it out to the river. In the 18th century several molendriegangen (3 mills), and molenviergangen (4 mills), were built. The largest preserved mill pace in Kinderdijk was awarded world heritage status in 1997.

Spanish Windmills at La Mancha.Another region well-known for its windmills is La Mancha, Spain. The windmills of La Mancha were made particularly famous by a scene in Cervantes’ Don Quixote de La Mancha where the title character mistakes them for giants sent by an evil enchanter, giving rise to the phrase “tilting at windmills”.

With the industrial revolution, the importance of windmills as primary industrial energy source was replaced by steam and internal combustion engines. Polder mills were replaced by steam, or diesel engines. More recently historic windmills are being preserved for their historic value, which requires regular use because the wooden machinery is likely to be destroyed by maggots when the mill remains stationery for too long. With increasing environmental concern, and approaching limits to fossil fuel consumption, wind power has regained interest as a renewable energy source. This new generation of wind mills produce electric power and are more generally referred to as wind turbines.The development of the water-pumping windmill in the USA was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America, which were otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout the world, by pumping water from wells to supply the needs of the steam locomotives of those early times. They are still used today for the same purpose in some areas of the world where a connection to electric power lines is not a realistic option.

The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was, for many years, a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. These mills, made by a variety of manufacturers, featured a large number of blades so that they would turn slowly but with considerable torque in low winds and be self regulating in high winds. A tower-top gearbox and crankshaft converted the rotary motion into reciprocating strokes carried downward through a pole or rod to the pump cylinder below.

In areas not prone to freezing weather, a pump jack (or standard) was frequently mounted at the top of the well in the center of the base off the tower. This was the connection between the windmill and the pump rod, which generally went through the drop pipe to the cylinder below. The pump jack provided a means for manual operation of the pump when the wind was not blowing. Some pump jacks provided a sealed connection, allowing water to be forced out under pressure allowing a tank at a higher elevation to provide water for a home and other uses, but many had a simple spout allowing water to flow away in a trough by gravity.

A modern day windmill as seen on the Rotar farm in California.
The drop pipe and pump rod continued down deep into the well, terminating at the pump cylinder below the lowest likely groundwater level. A suction tube usually continued a short distance more. This arrangement allowed wells as deep as 1200 feet (370 m) to be constructed, though most were much more shallow.

Windmills and related equipment are still manufactured and installed today on farms and ranches, usually in remote parts of the western United States where electric power is not readily available. The arrival of electricity in rural areas, brought by the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) in the 1930s through 1950s, contributed to the decline in the use of windmills in the US. Today, with increases in energy prices and the expense of replacing electric pumps, has led to an increase in the repair, restoration and installation of new windmills.

On the Other hand………

With increasing energy demands, wind has come to the fore once more as a source of renewable energy. All over the world wind farms are being constructed to create electricity from the wind.A wind turbine is a machine for converting the mechanical energy in wind into electrical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator.

This article discusses the conversion machinery. See the broader article on wind power for more on turbine placement and controversy, and in particular see the wind energy section of that article for an understanding of the temporal distribution of wind energy and how that affects wind turbine design.

For a machine that generates wind. For an unusual way to induce a voltage using an aerosol of ionised water,Wind turbines can be separated into two general types based on the axis about which the turbine rotates. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are most common. Vertical axis turbines are less frequently used.

Wind turbines can also be classified by the location in which they are to be used. Onshore, offshore, or even aerial wind turbines have unique design characteristics which are explained in more detail in the section on Turbine design and construction.

Wind turbines can also be used in conjuction with a solar power tower to extract the energy due to air heated by the Sun and rising through a large vertical solar chimney. The first commercial solar power tower of this type is in the early stages of construction in Australia. Another prototype application is in a Wave power plant.

Horizontal axis
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind by some means. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servomotor. Most have a gearbox too, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable for generating electricity.

Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount.

Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence, because they don’t need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds, the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. Because turbulence leads to fatigue failures and reliability is so important, most HAWTs are upwind machines.

There are several types of HAWT:

These four- (or more) bladed squat structures, usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails, were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan. These windmills, generally associated with the Netherlands, were historically used to grind grain or pump water from low-lying land. They greatly accelerated shipbuilding in the Netherlands, and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry.
American-style farm windmills
These windmills were used by American prairie farmers to generate electricity and to pump water. They typically had many blades, operated at tip speed ratios (defined below) not better than one, and had good starting torque. Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries, to provide a few lights, or to operate a radio receiver. The rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power in the 1950s. Such devices are still used in locations where it is too costly to bring in commercial power.

Wind turbines near Aalborg, DenmarkCommon modern wind turbines
Usually three-bladed, sometimes two-bladed or even one-bladed (and counterbalanced), and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. The rugged three-bladed turbine type has been championed by Danish turbine manufacturers. These have high tip speeds of up to 6x wind speed, high efficiency, and low torque ripple which contributes to good reliability. This is the type of turbine that is used commercially to produce electricity.
Ducted rotor
Still something of a research project, the ducted rotor consists of a turbine inside a duct which flares outwards at the back. The main advantage of the ducted rotor is that it can operate in a wide range of winds. Another advantage is that the generator operates at a high rotation rate, so it doesn’t require a bulky gearbox, so the mechanical portion can be smaller and lighter. A disadvantage is that (apart from the gearbox) it is more complicated than the unducted rotor and the duct is usually quite heavy, which
Counter-rotating horizontal axis turbines
Counter rotating turbines can be used to increase the rotation speed of the electrical generator.

As of 2005, no large practical counter-rotating HAWTs are commercially sold. When the counter rotating turbines are on the same side of the tower, the blades in front are angled forwards slightly so as to avoid hitting the rear ones. If the turbine blades are on opposite sides of the tower, it is best that the blades at the back be smaller than the blades at the front and set to stall at a higher wind speed. This allows the generator to function at a wider wind speed range than a single-turbine generator for a given tower. To reduce sympathetic vibrations, the two turbines should turn at speeds with few common factors, for example 7:3 speed ratio. Overall, this is a more complicated design than the single-turbine wind generator, but it taps more of the wind’s energy at a wider range of wind speeds.

Cyclic stresses and vibration
Cyclic stresses fatigue the blade, axle and bearing material, and were a major cause of turbine failure for many years. Because wind velocity increases at higher altitudes, the backward force and torque on a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade peaks as it turns through the highest point in its circle. The tower hinders the airflow at the lowest point in the circle, which produces a local dip in force and torque. These effects produce a cyclic twist on the main bearings of a HAWT. The combined twist is worst in machines with an even number of blades, where one is straight up when another is straight down. To improve reliability, teetering hubs have been used which allow the main shaft to rock through a few degrees, so that the main bearings do not have to resist the torque peaks.

When the turbine turns to face the wind, the rotating blades act like a gyroscope. As it pivots, gyroscopic precession tries to twist the turbine into a forward or backward somersault. For each blade on a wind generator’s turbine, precessive force is at a minimum when the blade is horizontal and at a maximum when the blade is vertical. This cyclic twisting can quickly fatigue and crack the blade roots, hub and axle of the turbine.

Vertical axis
Vertical axis turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft running vertically. The advantages of this arrangement are that the generator and/or gearbox can be placed at the bottom, near the ground, so the tower doesn’t need to support it, and that the turbine doesn’t need to be pointed into the wind. Drawbacks are usually the pulsating torque produced during each revolution; and the difficulty of mounting vertical axis turbines on towers, meaning they must operate in the slower, more turbulent air flow near the ground, with lower energy extraction efficiency.

H-Darrieus-turbineDarrieus wind turbine
These are the “eggbeater” turbines. They have good efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and cyclic stress on the tower, which contributes to poor reliability. Also, they generally require some external power source, or an additional Savonius rotor, to start turning.
These lift-type devices have vertical blades. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch, to reduce the torque pulsation and self-start [1]. The helical type has smooth torque, and can also use the vertical air flow component in turbulent or rising winds above buildings or cliffs [2].
Savonius wind turbine
These are the familiar two- (or more) scoop drag-type devices used in anemometers and some high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines, and always self-start (if at least three scoops). They can sometimes have long helical scoops, to give smooth torque.

Offshore wind turbines are considered to be less obtrusive than turbines on land, as their apparent size and noise can be mitigated by distance. Because water has less surface roughness than land, the average wind speed is usually higher over open water. This allows offshore turbines to use shorter towers, making them less visible. In stormy areas with extended shallow continental shelves (such as Denmark), turbines are practical to install, and give good service – Denmark’s wind generation provides about 12-15% of total electricity demand in the country, with many offshore windfarms. Denmark plans to increase wind energy’s contribution to as much as half of its electrical supply, though as of now Denmark is a net importer of electricity.

The offshore environment is, however, more expensive. Offshore towers are generally taller than onshore towers once one includes the submerged height, and offshore foundations are generally more difficult to build and more expensive as well. Power transmission from offshore turbines is generally through undersea cable, which is more expensive to install than cables on land, and may use high voltage direct current operation if significant distance is to be covered — which then requires yet more equipment. The offshore environment is also corrosive and abrasive. Repairs and maintenance are much more difficult, and much more costly than on onshore turbines. Offshore wind turbines are outfitted with extensive corrosion protection measures like coatings and cathodic protection.

While there is a significant market for small land-based windmills, offshore wind turbines have recently been and will probably continue to be the largest wind turbines in operation, because larger turbines reduce the marginal cost of many of the difficulties of offshore operation.

There are some conceptual designs that might make use of the unique offshore environment. For example, a floating turbine might orient itself downwind of its anchor, and thus avoid the need for a yawing mechanism. One concept for offshore turbines has them generate rain, instead of electricity. The turbines would create a fine aerosol, which is envisioned to increase evaporation and induce rainfall, hopefully on land [3].

Main article: Airborne wind turbine

It has been suggested that wind turbines might be flown in high speed winds at high altitude. No such systems currently exist in the marketplace. However, an Ontario based company called Magenn Power Inc. Has developed a turbine called the Magenn Power Air Rotor System (MAPS). The MAPS system uses a horizontal rotor in a helium suspended apparatus which is tethered to a transformer on the ground. Magenn states that their technology provides high torque, low starting speeds, and superior overall efficiency thanks to its ability to deploy higher in comparison to non-aerial solutions. Magenn is putting the first of the MAPS product line on the market in 2006.

It should be noted, however, that the idea of airborne wind turbines reappears in the industry every few years, and seldom (if ever) gets off the drawing board.

Turbine design and construction
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
The aerodynamics of a horizontal axis wind turbine are not as straight forward as one would think. The air flow at the blades is not the same as the airflow far away from the turbine. In fact the wind turbine actually deflects some of the air away from the turbine. This is completely unavoidable. The very nature of the way in which energy is extracted from the air also causes air to be deflected by the turbine. In addition the aerodymanics of a wind turbine up close at the rotor surface exibhit phenomena that are rarely seen in other aerodynamic fields.

Energy in fluid is contained in four differenct forms. Gravitational potential energy, thermodynamic pressure, kinetic energy from the velocity and finally thermal energy. Gravitational and thermal energy have a negligble affect on the energy extraction process. From a macroscopic point of view the air flow about the wind turbine is at atmospheric pressure. If pressure is constant than only kinetic energy is extracted. However up close near the rotor itself the air velocity is constant as it passes through the rotor plane. This is because of conservation of mass. The air that passes through the rotor cannot slow down because it needs to stay out of the way of the air behind it. So at the rotor the energy is extracted by a pressure drop. The air directly behind the wind turbine is sub-atmospheric. Where as the air in front is greater than atmospheric pressure. It is this high pressure in front of the wind turbine that deflects some of the upstream air around the turbine.

Betz was amongst the first to tackle this phenomenon. He notably described the Betz limit to wind turbine performance. This is derived by looking at the axial momentum of the air passing through the wind turbine. As stated above some of the air is deflected away from the turbine. This causes the air close to the turbine to be less than the air far from the turbine. The degree at which air at the turbine is less than the air far away from the turbine is? Called the axial induction factor. It is defined as below.

A is the axial induction factor. U1 is the wind speed far away from the rotor. U2 is the wind speed at the rotor.

The first step to deriving the Betz limit is applying conservation of axial momentum. As stated above, far away from the turbine, the wind is being losing speed after the wind turbine. This would violate the conservation of momentum if the wind turbine was not applying a thrust force on the flow. This thrust force manifests itself through the pressure drop across the rotor. The front operates at high pressure while the back operates at low pressure. The pressure diference from the front to back causes the thrust force. The momentum lost in the turbine is balanced by the thrust force.

Axial momentum relates the wake flow to the pressure difference at the rotor. Another equation is needed to relate the pressure difference to the velocity of the flow near the turbine. Here the bernoulli equation is used between for field flow and the flow near the wind turbine. There is one limitation to the bernoulli equation. The equation cannot be applied to fluid passing through the wind turbine. Instead conservation of mass is used to relate the incoming air to the outlet air. Betz used these equations and managed to solve the velocities of the flow in the far wake and near the wind turbine in terms of the far field flow and the axial induction factor. The velocities are given below.

U2 = U1(1 ? A) U4 = U1(1 ? 2a)

U4 is introduced here as the wind velocity in the far wake.This is important because the power extracted from the turbine is defined by the following equation. However the Betz limit is given in terms of the coeficient of power. The coeficient of power is similar to efficiency but not the same. The formula for the coeficient of power is given beneath the formula for power.

Betz was able to develop an expression for Cp in terms of only the induction factors. This is done by the velocity relations beinge substitutuded into power and power is substituded into the coefficient of power definition. The relationship Betz developed is given below.

Cp = 4a(1 ? A)2

The Betz limited is defined by the maximum value that can be given by the above formula. This is found by taking the derivative with respect to the axial induction factor , setting it to zero and solving for the axial induction factor. Betz was able to show that the optimum axial induction factor is one third. The optimum axial induction factor was then used to find the maximum coefficient of power. This maximum coefficient is the Betz limit. Betz was able to show that the maximum coefficient of power of a wind turbine is 16/27. Airflow operating at higher thrust will cause the axial induction factor to rise above the optimum value. Higher thrust cause more air to be deflected away from the turbine. When the axial induction factor falls below the optimum value the wind turbine is not extracting all the energy it can. This reduces pressure around the turbine and allows more air to pass through the turbine.

The derivation of the Betz limit shows a simple analysis of wind turbine aerodynamics. In reality there is a lot more. A more rigorous analysis would include wake rotation, the effect of variable geometry. The affect of air foils on the flow is a major component of wind turbine aerodymaics. Within airfoils alone the wind turbine aerodynamicist has to consider the affect of surface roughness, dynamic stall among other problems.

Tower height
The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the drag of the surface (sea or land) and the viscosity of the air. The variation in velocity with altitude, called wind shear is most dramatic near the surface. Typically, in daytime the variation follows the 1/7th power law, which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. Doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter as well, increasing the amount of material by a factor of eight. In night time, or better: when the atmosphere becomes stable, wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7th power law: doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%. A stable atmosphere is caused by radiative cooling of the surface and is common in a temperate climate: it usually occurs when there is a (partly) clear sky at night. When the (high altitude) wind is strong (10 meter wind speed higher than approximately 6 to 7 m/s) the stable atmosphere is disrupted because of friction turbulence and the atmosphere will turn neutral. A daytime atmosphere is either neutral (no net radiation; usually with strong winds and/or heavy clouding) or unstable (rising air because of ground heating -by the sun). Here again the 1/7th power law applies or is at least a good approximation of the wind profile.

For HAWTs, tower heights approximately twice to triple the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components.

Number of blades

For small (novelty or urban) HAWT turbines manufacturers typically ship three-bladed turbines with three separate blades that must be assembled onsite, into a central hub. Without careful assembly ensuring accurate dynamic balance of the blades, the turbine can shake itself apart.Most wind turbines have three blades. Very small turbines may use two blades for ease of construction and installation. Vibration intensity decreases with larger numbers of blades. Noise and wear are generally lower, and efficiency higher, with three instead of two blades.

Turbines with larger numbers of smaller blades operate at a lower Reynolds number and so are less efficient. Small turbines with 4 or more blades suffer further losses as each blade operates partly in the wake of the other blades. Also, the cost of the turbine usually increases with the number of blades.

Rotation control
Tip speed ratio
The ratio between the speed of the wind and the speed of the tips of the blades of a wind turbine. High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed ratios of 6-7.
Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds (a consequence of their generator design, see below). Use of aluminum and composites in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia, which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up, keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. Operating closer to their optimal tip speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings.

In contrast, older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades, which have higher inertia, and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines. The high inertia buffered the changes in rotation speed and thus made power output more stable.

The speed and torque at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for several reasons:

To optimize the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in light winds.
To keep the generator within its speed and torque limits.
To keep the rotor and hub within their centripetal force limits. The centripetal force from the spinning rotors increases as the square of the rotation speed, which makes this structure sensitive to overspeed.
To keep the rotor and tower within their strength limits. Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed, turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. Since the blades generate more downwind force (and thus put far greater stress on the tower) when they are producing torque, most wind turbines have ways of reducing torque in high winds.
To enable maintenance; because it is dangerous to have people working on a wind turbine while it is active, it is sometimes necessary to bring a turbine to a full stop.
To reduce noise; As a rule of thumb, the noise from a wind turbine increases with the fifth power of the relative wind speed (as seen from the moving tip of the blades). In noise-sensitive environments, the tip speed can be limited to approximately 60 m/s.
Overspeed control is exerted in two main ways: aerodynamic stalling or furling, and mechanical braking. Furling is the preferred method of slowing wind turbines.

Stalling and furling
Stalling works by increasing the angle at which the relative wind strikes the blades (angle of attack), and it reduces the induced drag (drag associated with lift). Stalling is simple because it can be made to happen passively (it increases automatically when the winds speed up), but it increases the cross-section of the blade face-on to the wind, and thus the ordinary drag. A fully stalled turbine blade, when stopped, has the flat side of the blade facing directly into the wind.

Furling works by decreasing the angle of attack, which reduces the induced drag from the lift of the rotor, as well as the cross-section. One major problem in designing wind turbines is getting the blades to stall or furl quickly enough should a gust of wind cause sudden acceleration. A fully furled turbine blade, when stopped, has the edge of the blade facing into the wind.

A fixed-speed HAWT inherently increases its angle of attack at higher wind speed as the blades speed up. A natural strategy, then, is to allow the blade to stall when the wind speed increases. This technique was used on many early HAWTs, until it was realised that stalled blades generate a large amount of vibration (noise). Standard modern turbines all furl the blades in high winds. Since furling requires acting against the torque on the blade, it requires active pitch angle control which is only cost-effective on very large turbines. Many turbines use hydraulic systems. These systems are usually spring loaded, so that if hydraulic power fails, the blades automatically furl. Other turbines use an electric servomotor for every rotor blade. They have a small battery-reserve in case of an electric-grid breakdown.

Electromagnetic braking

Dynamic braking resistor for wind turbine.Braking of a turbine can also be done by dumping energy from the generator into a resistor bank, converting the kinetic energy of the turbine rotation into heat. This method is useful if the connected load on the generator is suddenly reduced or is too small to keep the turbine speed within its allowed limit. Cyclically braking causes the blades to slow down, which increases the stalling effect, reducing the efficiency of the blades. This way, the turbine’s rotation can be kept at a safe speed in faster winds while maintaining (nominal) power output.

Mechanical braking
A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed, as the mechanical brakes would wear quickly if used to stop the turbine from full speed.

Turbine size

a person standing beside modern turbine blades, illustrating their size.For a given survivable wind speed, the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length. Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material.

Labor and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size, so to minimize costs, wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials, and siting requirements.

Typical modern wind turbines have diameters of 40 to 90 meters and are rated between 500 kW and 2 megawatts. Currently (2005) the most powerful turbine is rated at 6 MW.

Generating electricity
For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. A speed increasing gearbox may be inserted between the rotor hub and the generator, so that the generator cost and weight can be reduced.

Commercial size generators have a rotor carrying a field winding so that a rotating magnetic field is produced inside a set of windings called the stator. While the rotating field winding consumes a fraction of a percent of the generator output, adjustment of the field current allows good control over the generator output voltage. Very small wind generators (a few watts to perhaps a kilowatt in output) may use permanent magnets but these are too costly to use in large machines and do not allow convenient regulation of the generator voltage.

Electrical generators inherently produce AC power. Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed, to match power line frequency, which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. The variable frequency current is then converted to DC and then back to AC, matching the line frequency and voltage. Although the two conversions require costly equipment and cause power loss, the turbine can capture a significantly larger amount of the annual wind energy. In some cases, especially when turbines are sited offshore, the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid.

One of the strongest construction materials available (in 2006) is graphite-fibre in epoxy, but it is very expensive and only used by some manufactures for special load-bearing parts of the rotor blades. Modern rotor blades (up to 126 m diameter) are made of lightweight pultruded glass-reinforced plastic, smaller ones also from aluminum, or sometimes laminated wood.

Wood and canvas sails were originally used on early windmills. Unfortunately they require much maintenance over their service life. Also, they have a relatively high drag (low aerodynamic efficiency) for the force they capture. For these reasons they were superseded with solid airfoils.

Special windturbines
One wind turbine of the type E-66 at Windpark Holtriem/Germany carries an observation deck, open for visitors.


High-efficiency wind turbines (foreground) win out over traditional windmills (background) in most new installations.Wind machines were used for grinding grain in Persia as early as 200 B.C. This type of machine spread throughout the Islamic world and were introduced by Crusaders into Europe in the 13th century. By the 14th century Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta. In Denmark by 1900 there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW. The first windmill for electricity production was built in Denmark in 1890, and in 1908 there were 72 wind-driven electric generators from 5 kW to 25 kW. The largest machines were on 24 m towers with four-bladed 23 m diameter rotors.

By the 1930s windmills were mainly used to generate electricity on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. In this period, high tensile steel was cheap, and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual load factor of 32 per cent, not much different from current wind machines.

In 1941 the world’s first megawatt-size wind turbine was connected to the local electrical distribution system on Grandpa’s Knob in Vermont, USA. This 1.25 MW Smith-Putnam turbine operated for 1100 hours before a blade failed at a known weak point, which had not been reinforced due to war-time material shortages. In the 1940s, the U.S. Had a rural electrification project that killed the natural market for wind-generated power, since network power distribution provided a farm with more dependable usable energy for a given amount of capital investment.

In the 1970s many people began to desire a self-sufficient life-style. Solar cells were too expensive for small-scale electrical generation, so practical people turned to windmills. At first they built ad-hoc designs using wood and automobile parts. Most people discovered that a reliable wind generator is a moderately complex engineering project, well beyond the ability of most romantics. Practical people began to search for and rebuild farm wind-generators from the 1930s. Jacobs wind generators were especially sought after.

Later, in the 1980s, California provided tax rebates for ecologically harmless power. These rebates funded the first major use of wind power for utility electricity. These machines, gathered in large wind parks such as at Altamont Pass would be considered small and un-economic by modern wind power development standards.

As aesthetics and durability became more important, turbines were placed atop steel or reinforced concrete towers. Small generators are connected to the tower on the ground, then the tower is raised into position. Larger generators are hoisted into position atop the tower and there is a ladder or staircase inside the tower to allow technicians to reach and maintain the generator. Originally wind generators were built right next to where their power was needed. With the availability of long distance electric power transmission, wind generators are now often on wind farms in windy locations and huge ones are being built offshore, sometimes transmitting power back to land using high voltage submarine cable. Since wind turbines are a renewable means of generating electricity, they are being widely deployed, but their cost is often subsidised by taxpayers, either directly or through renewable energy credits. Much depends on the cost of alternative sources of electricity. Wind generator cost per unit power has been decreasing by about four percent per year.

Companies in wind turbine industry

World market for wind energy plants in 2003Eirbyte[4](Supplier of small turbines in Ireland)
Airtricity (only operator of turbines)
Suzlon Energy Ltd[5]
Bergey Windpower[6]
Det Norske Veritas – Certification of wind turbines and wind turbine projects
EMD A/S – WindPRO software package for project design and planning of turbines
Enercon GmbH, Germany – wind turbines up to 6 MW
Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd.
General Electric, through its subsidiary GE Energy
LM Glasfiber A/S – Rotor blades ranging from 13.4 to 61.5 m
Natural Power – International wind energy consultancy services
NEG Micon – Merged with Vestas in 2004
Northern Power Systems
REpower, Germany – wind turbines up to 5 MW
Siemens Wind Power A/S (formerly Bonus Energy A/S)
Southwest Windpower [7]
Valmont Wind Energy, Inc. – modular tower systems for MW wind turbines.
Vestas, Denmark – wind turbines up to 4.5 MW [8]
Wind Prospect – Independent wind energy developer in the UK and Australia

The world’s largest turbines are manufactured by the Northern German companies Enercon and REpower. The Enercon E112 delivers up to 6 MW, has an overall height of 186 m and a diameter of 114 m, the REpower 5M delivers up to 5 MW, has an overall height of 183 m and a diameter of 126 m.

The turbine closest to the north pole is a Nordex N-80 in Havoygalven near Hammerfest, Norway. The ones closest to the south pole are two Enercon E-30 on the Antarctica, used to power the Australian Research Division’s Mawson Bay station.

The highest located turbine is at 2300 m on the mountain Gütsch near Andermatt, Switzerland. Originally a prototype of the Dutch company Lagerwey was tested there, however, it failed to meet the expectations and was demolished in 2002. Since October 2004 an Enercon E-40 produces electricity there.

Mandy asks…

Do u think the oil companies would ever let us convert to solar, water power, electric cars?

we have had the knowledge of using alternative power for over 4 decades, but why aren’t we there yet? Do u believe the oil companies, Dupont, GM and all the others have shelved these ideas for their own gain?

Windmill Farms answers:

I think that the market will demand alternative energy when it is a competitive industry in the market…RIght now solar energy is only an option for government buildings and the super wealthy….the average cost to build an “off grid” 5 KV solar system to power your house is around 75 thousand dollars….You would have to live in it for 52 years to even break even on the cost of the solar system versus the average cost of powering your home with coal fire electricity.

Water power is already a heavily used commoditiy…virtually every state in the nation uses hydroelectric plants at dams…but the power they generate typically is for rural areas and cannot power large metropolisis…In the Mojave desert they have the entire landscape of the desert filled with wind farms….wind mills as far as the eye can see….you can’t even see what the mountains look like because every square inch of the desert is covered with white wind mills….and even with this massive array of wind energy…they are only able to generate 20% of Palm Springs and Desert Hot Springs electrical needs.

People want to force everyone to use renewable energy…but there are no applications where it is viable on any sort of practical level.

When wind and solar arrays are able to power the city of Los Angeles then maybe we will have something that they can go to market with…otherwise the government is forcing people to pay three times or four times as much for energy because they want to force us to be “environmentally conscientious” trust me I used to be a card carrying member of Greenpeace…but I have seen that there are no practical applications at this point and people need to be able to feed and clothe their children instead of paying $800.00 electric bills.

Let the market tell us when renweable energy is viable….not the politicians forcing it down our throats….

I understand the idealistic perspective of wanting a pollution free world where everyone lives off the power generated by the sun….but we are a long way off from being able to harness that power and until someone figures out how to do so practically….we need to be realistic about the feasibility of these ideas….instead of being realistic…Washington DC is barreling forward with legislation and tax code that basically punishes the people and organizations that power this country…all while subsidizing energy sources that are COMPLETELY unable to keep up with demand.

The market is smarter than we give it credit for…everyone wants renewable energy in place….but the technology needs to be there first…and we can’t call Dupont and GM evil monopolist when they are the only organizations providing practical options.

Helen asks…

What is the best renewable energy source for a small home?

I’m moving out to a rural area where my friends say power is very expensive. I’m looking for some alternate sources of power. Some tips on how to make the house more energy efficient would also be very helpful.

Windmill Farms answers:

Depends on where it is you are moving. Windmills cost less than solar PV and generate plenty of power…if you have wind. Same for water wheels. You can get free heat from solar if you build your house with a trombe wall. The same, or a solar chimney can provide cooling. Good design can minimize the need for either. Builders will argue a diminishing return on thicker walls with more insulation, you have to decide how much “return” you want. Double the construction price of your house, you can virtually eliminate cooling and heating. You have to decide if the ROI is worthy of the investment.

Which implies an “alternative source of power” that is most overlooked: simple conservation. If your fridge is nearly 1/2 your electrical budget (a pretty good generalization), you can save a lot of energy by converting a deep freeze into a fridge. If most of the other half of your electric bill is hot water, install a 1GPM or 1.5GPM showerhead, turn your hot water heater down to 120F, wash your hands with cold water, buy a Marathon (or similar) water heater. Or build a solar water preheater (heating water from 90F to 120F costs a lot less than heating it from 40F).

Perhaps heating and cooling are your electric hogs? Get some caulking and caulk every wall seam around your house, both at the ceiling and floor. Use solar screens outside your windows in the summer and inside in the winter (!). Long eaves can also prevent solar heating in the summer, yet allow solar heating in the winter. Good landscape design can also help in this regard.

And then there is lighting and cooking and other smaller fry. Certainly look into CFLs. They’ll be required soon enough. Be sure that CFLs installed in the “hanging” orientation have adequate heat ventilation, as the heat they generate “pooling” in a fixture is the leading cause of early failure (it can easily cut their lifespan in half). Buy xmas LED light ropes and staple them around your house — you’ll be surprised how much light they put out, and the light is nicely apportioned, instead of a single big glaring, blinding lamp. And they are WAY cheaper than edison-base LED bulbs. If you are designing your house, consider replacing portions of your windows with insulated translucent panels. These provide softer diffuse light when sunlit, instead of pools of harsh direct light which comes through clear glass, and can be way more efficient than double- and triple-pane windows. AND they reflect inside light at nighttime, making whatever lighting you use more effective.

Okay, I went way beyond the scope of your question, sorry…but, hope this helps!

Daniel asks…

central Heating without the use of gas,lpg,oil?

i have recently purchased a house, it has currently a immersion heater and storage heaters in every room. there is no room to put in a oil tank in it is a rual area so there is no gas, through research i have spotted econo panel heaters and they seem cheap and fairly cheap to run about £0.07p an hour there is log burning stove in the property also. so i thought that along with the panel heaters, the log burner and possibly a electric power boiler for the water id be ok but after being in contact with the energy saving trust and they have told me its not econnomic to have a electric boiler there is no grants in my area only for gas central heating systems and i dont have the money to invest in green engery system ,solar, heat pump or wind this is my first house you see.

if anyone could shed any light on this problem it would be appreciated thanks.
Thanks for you advice, so would it be cheaper to run the immersion heater at the cheaper rate on a timer rather than keeping it topped up all the time abit like boiling a kettle from scratch takes more power and longer to heat up than it would do if you kept topping it up with water and boiling it wouldn’t it?

also with the storage heaters you don’t get instant heat with them do you i was thinking of ordering 4 (1xtowel rail,1xkitchen 1xbedroom and 1xlounge) of these econo heaters putting them on timers and useing them abit like central heating on timers plugged into sockets using maybe 3 hours of cheap electric in the morning before work and then maybe 2 hours at night before lighting the log burner and having that on all night before bed ? im getting worried about a potentially expensive electric bill thanks again for your input

Windmill Farms answers:

LP gas is the most economical heat for rural areas in the US. If you have a decent distribution network in your area, it’s probably the same there. Wood burning for heat is fairly high in pollution unless you have a modern wood stove. You also need your own woodlot and be willing to cut wood often for it to be economical. Consider what you can do with even a portion of that time to earn money and buy LP.

William asks…

Facts about renewable energy? (solar, wind, etc) please answer?

I’m doing a poster on Renewable energy, and I would just like someone to verify that all these facts are correct:

Clean energy poster:
What is clean energy?
This is power produced from renewable (naturally replenished) and natural resources without having a negative impact on the environment.
Examples of reliable “clean” energy sources include: sunlight, water, wind, biomass and geothermal heat.

Wind Power – this is the conversion of wind strength into usable energy sources, especially for electricity. This type of power can be obtained by using wind turbines and wind mills.

Solar Energy – this is the power that is obtained from sunlight and can be converted into other types of energy. Inventions such as solar panels can help collect this source of energy for conversion.

Biomass Energy – Biomass is any plant (trees) or animal matter, and can be used to create an energy-rich gas called Biogas. Biomass can also be burned to create fuel for different uses.

-This renewable source of energy does not produce waste or pollution.
-This fuel is used for many things: electricity, creation of biomass, heating water, and buildings, and even transport (solar-powered cars)
-This is a free, reliable and clean energy source.

-This is one of the lowest priced renewable energy sources.
-This renewable source is a good alternative to nuclear energy in areas with favourable climate conditions.
-This source can provide cleaner air and a much healthier environment for all.

-Growing biomass for fuel can create jobs in rural areas.
-Biomass is not a fossilised fuel (like oil and coal), but fresh natural material that can grow again, even after harvesting.
-Using this source of power will not have a major affect on the environment.

Is everything correct/accurate? anything that I should edit/change?

Windmill Farms answers:

Biomass does not create bio fuel, yet.
Biomass is usually sent to a biomass plant that converts it to electricity. Yes it is small trees and brush or even walnut shells that are chipped then burned in a massive furnace heating water into steam that turns a turbine generator that produces electricity.
It can be converted into ethanol gas but currently its to expensive to pay off.

I’m a lumberjack

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Wind Energy Stocks

John asks…

Any good penny stocks?

I have been searching for a penny stock that i can buy that will increase with the current US economy. I was wondering if you knew any good penny stocks that seem good to invest in? I have one right now i am looking at called AWNE (Americas Wind Energy Corp Com). I was wondering if these types of stocks may be good? I am looking to spend $100 so i can get a good amount. Any help at all would be very appreciated. Thanks in advance!

Windmill Farms answers:

No such thing as a good penny stock. That’s why they’re only worth pennies.

Linda asks…

Which stocks are best to invest in?

Please give me your top five stocks that are good to invest with, begining with the best ones.

Windmill Farms answers:

I like investing in energy, particularly wind energy and biofuels. I like Florida Power & Light (FPL) and Chesapeake Energy (CHK). I also like Nabors Drilling (NBR). I like Bolt Technology (BTJ), and Mitcham Industries (MIND).

If you want stock ideas, you should get them from the traders that have proven that they are the best. This is the idea behind, http://www.top10traders – this is a free site where you can create a portfolio of stocks with $100,000 in “play” money. The site ranks the best traders based on the performance of their picks. Here are this month’s best:

Lizzie asks…

Why are there so many more wind farms in Europe & America than Australia?

While travelling around Europe & America, I noticed there were wind farms in so many country areas and they seemed to be making a big effort to use these alternative power sources. Why don’t we have many in Australia? I’ve heard the argument that it kills birds but Europe & America have birds, how have they got around the problem and why can’t we do that?

Windmill Farms answers:

Firstly, the wind-farm that was to open in Gippsland did run into difficulties over the orange bellied parrot that was supposed to be going to be killed by wind turbines. This was only one problem. I think that it was in more danger from feral cats. There are some wind turbines scattered around Australia – usually along its’ coast in Western Victoria, South Australia and in Western Australia where there is plenty of wind.

Web sites for research into wind farms in Australia

Wind Farm Accreditation

Sustainability Centre Paper

Australia is better suited to solar power and thermal power obtained from under the ground. These should have been pursued by the last government. However, this didn’t happen because Prime Minister John Howard was at best a climate change sceptic and at worst didn’t believe that it existed. He did nothing until about a year before the 2007 elections that he lost. He then implemented the $10 billion over 10 years Murray – Darling program. This was a joke because he didn’t spend one cent of it on buying water back or doing anything else.

There has been a desire by sugar cane growers to develop an ethanol industry in Australia for over 30 years. This has been ignored with the exception of one company which made donations to the Liberal Party. Now that it is out of office nothing is happening with the ethanol industry.

We have also had university professors, and business people develop develop solar power resources that are some of the best in the world. They have left Australia – mainly for the US either to work for an American company or list their company on the US stock exchange becuse of the lack of interest by government in encouraging their entrepreneurship here. This is a crying shame. Our economy needs this type of initiative. This should be encouraged by government. We still have the environmental problems and have lost the business.

We should especially use solar power that is best suited to our economy and climate. We can only hope that people can continue to band together in groups of 50 to 100 which makes it much cheaper and have solar cells put on their roofs. This way they can take advantage of the Government rebate of $8,000 for those on less than $100,000 p.a. This way the installers can import large quantities in bulk and cheaper and pass the savings on to the consumer.

I hope that his information helps you in finding out the extent of the use of wind power in Australia. We could certainly have more of it. The bit we do have is out of sight and therefore out of a lot of people’s minds.


Donna asks…

What are your favorite clean energy / green tech stocks?

I’m looking to build a clean energy portfolio. What are your favorite clean energy stocks? I’m looking for companies that have innovation, lots of growth potential and patents / technologies that are scalable. I’m also looking for companies with a track record of improving energy production efficiency.

Please don’t hesitate to include quotes from all over the world. Also if you are familiar with private startups and innovations, don’t hesitate to post here! In the near future I’m planning to gather together an online community of clean tech investors!

Windmill Farms answers:

One that I own is Vesta Wind Systems, a Danish company. The ticker is VWSYF.PK. It is the largest manufacturer of wind turbines in the world. Another advantage is that it is quoted in a currency other than dollars. Another that you might possibly be interested in is Trina Solar, a Chinese company that make solar panels, etc. Again not quoted in dollars. It is traded as an ADR with the ticker TSL.. Although I do own both I prefer Vesta as the technology is more cost efficient.

Donald asks…

how to invest a money in stock market ?

i m graduate student frm technical background from mumbai . i want all information about how to invest a money in BSE & how 2 make a profit & hw 2 create a account . i hv IT background so i dont hv any small clue abt stock market . & can i invest 10000 money ?

Windmill Farms answers:

Invest in A-Power Energy Generation System (APWR) stock is a great place to invest because the stock it blow 200 day average so in the short term it will increase really fast when it in the market earning short_term you will earn 1-2 time the amount that you put in which in 1-2 year and of you put in a long-term you return it will be 10-15 time which it 5-10 years. The company is the biggest owner of wind turbine in china and the company is expending to other area such as U.S, Europe, and many more countries. The companies is expend their wind turbine to many different area the stock average return a year is about 20% but with right now the we are on the way to getting out of recession the average return is about 50%-120% a year.

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Renewable Energy Jobs

Daniel asks…

slogans for renewable energy?

slogans for renewable energy resources

Windmill Farms answers:

1. Friends of the Earth
2. The Infinite Power Generations
3. You have the power
4. Let us join the energy revolution
5. Campaign Earth
6. Let’s built a Big Solar
7. Biomass Energy
8. Renewable Energy is Human Right
9. Power to the People
10. Mobilize the Earth
11. Why Solar
12. Live Better
13. Create Jobs, Save Money & Keeps Lights on With 100% Renewable Energy
14. Care Clean & Affordable Renewable Energy

Lizzie asks…

Green jobs? Where??????

Where are they? I go to the website and I see jobs for my state like….WILDLIFE PROTECTION??

Is this the kind of $ hit Obama and the lefties are talking about?! The fck is this s**t?


Windmill Farms answers:

Well, there are Air Quality Jobs, Biofuel Jobs, Clean Energy Jobs, Cleantech Jobs, Climate Change Jobs, Climate Policy Jobs, CSR Jobs, Ecology Jobs, EHS Jobs, Energy Auditor Jobs, Energy Efficiency Jobs, Energy Storage Jobs, Environmental Jobs, Environmental Consulting Jobs, Environmental Law Jobs, Fair Trade Jobs, Farming Jobs, Fitness Jobs, Geologist Jobs, Green Building Jobs, Green Collar Jobs, Green Construction Jobs, HVAC Jobs, Hydrologist Jobs, LEED Jobs, Microfinance Jobs, Naturalist Jobs, Nonprofit Jobs, Philanthropy Jobs, Recycling Jobs, Renewable Energy Jobs, Smart Grid Jobs, Social Enterprise Jobs, Solar Jobs, Sustainability Jobs, Sustainable Ag. Jobs, Water Conservation Jobs, Weatherization Jobs, Wind Power Jobs.

Unfortunately, looks like you need an education for most of these. Better luck next time.

Lisa asks…

Degree type — Renewable Energy?

What degree type would be recommended for a career in renewable energy? Also, what jobs would be available?

Windmill Farms answers:

Civil engineering for building structures (like towers, water wheels/dams, whatnot). Since you’re specifically interested in renewable energy, you might also look into electrical engineering. That will teach you how electricity can be generated and, more importantly, stored.

Making a wind turbine, for instance, is all about generating electromagnetic energy.

Good luck!

Nancy asks…

Help with Renewable energies?

What would the world be like if we didn’t have renewable energies ?

what are some Ideas about how health , lifestyle , environment + jobs would change if we didn’t have renewable energies ?

What should our energy policy be as a country?

Windmill Farms answers:

Since the US uses very little renewable energy, with most of it coming from non-renewable sources like coal and oil, then health, lifestyle, etc, would be just the way it is now.


Thomas asks…

Why Renewable Energy?

Why should we use renewable energy over fossil fuels or non renewable energy. Please five details and reasons.
*Give(not five) details and reasons

Windmill Farms answers:

Hey Rick, there are several reasons, I will try to highlight a few.

If you invest properly in solar or wind power today and take advantage of any grants and tax incentives, even if your electric rates do not go up as they are forecast too, you will get your money back over time, well within the lifetime of the equipment, and sooner if there is a rate increase in the future. There are also enviromental benefits. At one time there was an argument that a solar panel will never produce as much power as was used to manufacture it. First of all, this is not correct. The, “Embodied Energy,” in a solar panel is earned back in 2 – 6 years, depending on the type panel, where the raw materials were shipped from, and how it was installed and used in the end. Most panels are warrantied to last at least 25 years, and most last much longer than that. But the argument is not important anyway. We have been living with electricity for over a century now, so it isn’t going away anytime soon. The question is, “What is the best way to produce it?” If you build a panel, and put it along side a similar sized natural gas fired turbine generator for example, which earns back its embodied energy sooner? The answer is the gas turbine never does, because once you build it, ship it and install it, you now have to feed it natural gas for the rest of its life, so it keeps on digging itself a deeper and deeper embodied energy hole that it can never crawl out of. At least the panel has a chance to get even environmentally. So manufacturing and using solar panels in the end releases less pollution into our environment. The same basic argument exists for wind power as well.

There are also mechanical and political benefits. We all know after the oil embargo of 1973, and the gulf war what it means for our country to rely on foreign oil. Wouldn’t it be nice if we only shipped in 20% of our energy instead of 60% the next time something like that happens? Our home has been powered by the wind and sun for years now, but we still remain connected to the electric grid. Last year alone there were two power failures in our county that lasted about a half day each. In both cases, we were not aware of them because our solar array kept on feeding the house. It’s difficult to put a price tag on something like that. Did you know that there are over 100,000 homes and businesses in the United States alone that use some level of wind or solar power to operate their electrical devices, that’s good news.

Beyond the mechanical, political and environmental benefits however, lies a less obvious benefit, the social benefit. Right now we pump oil out of the ground, and mine for coal. The process of getting those materials to market involves shipping, military escorts and other activities that use up a good portion of that energy as well as putting lives at risk. Jobs in solar power are higher tech than jobs in coal mining, oil drilling and shipping, and there are more of them. Using more solar and wind power would require us to put more people to work, and increase our education base because the work involved requires certain skills. I would personally like to take all those people out of the coal mines, send them to school and put them to work building solar panels. Nobody would have to die again in one of those dark holes in the ground trying to find food for our hungry power plants. They could work on a factory floor where they would not be exposed to coal dust, radon and other toxins and dangers. Most of our solar and wind resources are spread pretty evenly over the middle half of our globe, so everyone has access. This puts people in Bogota on a more equal footing with people in Boca Raton by giving them access to electricity, heat and clean water, and the education to use the solar resources that provide those things. Oil, coal and natural gas is generally piled up in a few places, such as Russia and the Middle East. This gives those countries and the richer governments that rule them more horse power in bargaining for the other resources of our planet. These are the things that wars are made of.

There are other reasons, but I think you get the picture. For us, renewable energy has become something of a hobby. It will probably never save us any real money, utility power in most places is really very inexpensive, but it’s a little like growing your own tomatoes. It’s usually cheaper to buy them at the grocery, but lots of people go to the work and expense to maintain a garden instead. We just grow electrons in ours. If you really want to learn more about the subject, there are some great sources to look into, I will list some below. Good luck, and take care, Rudydoo

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Wind Power

Charles asks…

How much electricity is produced by wind power?

I need to know the answers to some questions about wind power, however, I have looked everywhere and cant find the Information. I was really hoping somebody can help me :)

1. What percent of electricity is produced by wind power in the UK, France and Netherlands ( all the info needs to be from the same year)

2. Where is the biggest wind farm in the world and how much electricity does it produce?

If anyone could help me I would be sooo grateful :D

Thank youu :) :D x

Windmill Farms answers:

1. Is changing quite quickly; countries are expanding wind power quickly and output varies a bit by year. Wiki has a good comparison chart:

in 2008 it was about 1.1% of French electricity (up from 0.8% in ’07) and 2.0% of UK electricity (up from 1.5% in ’07). I can’t find figures for ’08 in the Netherlands, but I expect it’s higher. They had 2.2GW installed (compared to 3.3GW in the UK), but only consumed ~105bn kWh compared with the UK’s ~350-380bn kWh. (source: CIA world factbook).

The share is expected to grow: the UK generated ~2% of electricity in a year it ended with 3.3GW installed. It now has 4.5GW installed and has recently given the go-ahead to about 20GW+ of offshore wind farms, with a further 8.5GW consented or under construction according to the BWEA.

2. Current biggest wind farm is Horse Hollow Wind Energy Centre at 735.5 MW peak output:

Much bigger ones are being planned, including the 20 GW Gansu Wind Farm (one of 6 similar sized ones planned in China), the

Ken asks…

What does wind power have to do with sustainability?

I am doing a science project and I am completely confused. I have no clue what sustainability means and how it connects to wind power. Any help I would appreciate.

Windmill Farms answers:

Sustainability is the idea that resources should be able to be regrown or regenerate, not run out. Oil- not sustainable. Corn- sustainable.

Wind will never run out is not used up and can be used with no harmful effects on the environment.

Nancy asks…

So Washington gas send me a letter asking if i would like to change to wind power energy?

should i change to 50% or 100% wind power energy?
what r some pros and cons of using wind power energy?
i know its green, less gas, coal, nuclear energy will be use less and it will save some money every month
but they asked if i want 50% or 100% wind energy as if theres some thing bad about it…is there?

Windmill Farms answers:

You should figure out which one costs more. The reason why they are asking is probably because you will get a different energy baseline for each kind of power used. They are essentially asking you if you are willing to pay more per kilowatt hour in order to use “green energy”

Joseph asks…

Can someone answer these wind power questions for me?

How easy is it to install wind power?
Where can one buy wind power?
Are there grants available for wind power?
Wind power tax breaks?

Please provide source links.

Windmill Farms answers:

Those wind power sources for electricity are very bulky and may need difficult maintenance. I would prefer photovoltaic panels that do not need so much maintenance. The solar panels are supposed to last for 25 years. The batteries they use have an average life of 2 years but they are not very expensive. Probably in 10 years the system will pay for itself and in some States you can sell the excess electricity produced to the Power company. I would go to a company which sells the system to obtain an economic study of your power needs and get an offer.

Thomas asks…

What are the basics of sailing a large ocean-going vessel by wind power alone?

In a paragraph or two can someone answer the question
describing the basics of sailing a large ocean-going vessel by wind power alone?
I have to answer this question for a project but i have no idea.. Someone HELP!!

Windmill Farms answers:

The basics of sailing the oceans can be narrowed down to two things: ocean currents and prevailing winds. Civilizations which studied these two phenomena became the explorers and rulers of the seas.

Ocean currents can flow at relatively high speeds — the Gulf Stream has a max speed of 4 knots! Not knowing which way the currents flow could be catastrophic to a voyage. Planning a trip which takes advantage of current will add to the chances of success!

Prevailing winds across the globe mean that there natural paths for sailing ships to take advantage of. Approaching the equator, the winds tend toward the west — these are the trade winds — westward crossings of the Atlantic or Pacific oceans is best done by getting into these trade wind or easterlie zones. North or South of these zones are a band of prevailing winds which blow from the west to the east — the “westerlies”. You can see these winds on this representation: (1)

The best of all situations is where the ocean currents and the prevailing winds flow in the same direction. For instance, in the North Atlantic, the Gulf Stream and the westerlies form a “superhighway” from North America to Europe. When modern day tall-ships race across the Atlantic they use the same routes found centuries ago by explorers. (2)

You can see that they use the trade winds to cross from Europe to North America. Then they use the Gulf Stream to go up the East coast, and finally catch the westerlies and the remainder of the Gulf Stream to cross to Europe.

These basics will constrain all wind-powered vessels — especially those “square rigged”, ie: driven from winds coming from behind the vessel. Other types of sail craft may be able to sail “into the wind” a little better, but the wind and current will always be their main concern.

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Is Wind Power Actually Green

Joseph asks…

What are green solar homes?

Windmill Farms answers:

Let me start off by saying we (my family and I) live completely, 100% “off of the grid and are completely self sufficient”

The house is built utilizing natures natural elements, in the shape of an octagon with 8ft wide arch doors on every wall to catch every angle of wind (typical 4 sided homes have half the chance as one with 8 sides. A circle being the most efficient design). Woodburning stoves, solar chimney, solar AC, solar heating, solar water heating (pool and home), solar stove, solar power, wind power, hydrogen powered back up generator, hydrogen back up water heater, hydrogen stove, 2 hydrogen powered trucks, 1 EV (electric vehicle) and satellite internet.

We also built many green small cabins on the ranch that we offer to family, friends and our on-site off-grid workshop guests, including one straw bale, one papercrete, earth bag and adobe, one cob and cordwood, one underground and rammed earth, one log and post and beam and one rock. Each one actually started as a test for what the main house would be and were later finished and turned into guest cabins. I later wrote a guide on how to build with alternative materials using alternative methods for next to nothing.

We raise meat and milk goats, chickens for meat and eggs, ducks for meat and eggs, trap havilina (wild boar pig), rabbit, quail. Brew our own beer from home grown products, preserve our fruits, vegetables, etc. Smoke and jerky the meat, make our own soap, cheese.

There are no utility lines, no water lines, no roads, tv, cell service, etc. On our ranch. EVERYTHING needed is produced here. All electricity comes from 27 solar panels, 2 main wind gens and a back hydrogen generator if needed (typically we can last 9 days with all luxuries of sunless windless weather, hasn’t happened yet). Water is caught and storaged from the rain. Hot water is made with solar batch water heaters with an on-demand hydrogen hot water heater as backup. Even our vehicles use alternative energy (2 hydrogen trucks, 1 EV electric vehicle converted). Because of this we have no bills, no debt and no mortgage.

Anyone interested can check it out at..

Www agua-luna com

I believe this is the first step anyone can make “help the environment”. Once you convert your own life style to a greener more eco friendly route, you can start helping others.

My home has all the comforts listed above plus some. We live very comfortable without effecting the environment. Just saying that tol et you know it’s possible. You may not want to go as extreme as me and my family but anywhere in between is something.

Without getting to in depth here, Using alternative fuels in your vehicles and harnessing your own electricity from the sun, water, earth and wind are the 2 are key elements in making a green transition and erasing your carbon footprint.

Here’s a calculator to find out how much of a green impact your making (carbon footprint)

if you’d like to make your next step feel free to contact me personally at www agua-luna com

I’ve been installing home made Solar panels. Solar stoves, Solar batch and inline hot water heaters. Solar radiant heating. Solar home heating and AC, along with home made wind gens and other alternative energy items for the last 3 years.

You can even make the above projects on site with simple parts from the local hardware stores or auto stores or junk yards. For more info check out some guides I wrote / compiled on how to DIY www agua-luna com

Again these projects can be accomplished anywhere by anyone.

If you absolutely can’t do anything in your home at least you can put alternative fuels in your car. Most major automotive manufacturers (Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, etc) recommend the use of bio fuels, and nearly every car manufacturer in the world approves ethanol blends in their warranty coverage.

In fact your probably even driving an ethanol car and didn’t even know it.

The trick is finding fuel.

I’ve been producing biofuel for about 3 years now, it’s not extremely difficult. Basically you need general household ingredients, a processor (or still for ethanol) and some used oil. Blend it, let separate, screen and use. I complied a guide a while back to help walk you threw the process step by step, just email me or check out..

Www agua-luna com

as for recyling the best way i’ve found without taking money from your won pocket is to join a free freecycle group in your area or visit the habitat for humanity.

If you’d like help in making your self sufficient steps, feel free to contact me directly. I’ve written several how-to DIY guides available at www agua-luna com
on the subject. I also offer online and on-site workshops, seminars and internships to help others “help the environment”.

Hope this helped, feel free to contact me personally if you have any questions if you’d like assistance in making your first self sufficient steps, I’m willing to walk you step by step threw the process. I’ve written several how-to DIY guides available at www agua-luna com on the subject. I also offer online and on-site workshops, seminars and internships to help others help the environment.

Dan Martin
Alterative Energy / Sustainable Consultant, Living 100% on Alternative & Author of How One Simple Yet Incredibly Powerful Resource Is Transforming The Lives of Regular People From All Over The World… Instantly Elevating Their Income & Lowering Their Debt, While Saving The Environment by Using FREE ENERGY… All With Just One Click of A Mouse…For more info Visit:

www AGUA-LUNA com
Stop Global Warming!!!

Richard asks…

Will the collapse of green energy in America be Obungo’s only legacy?

…I mean besides the national debt, of course…

Windmill Farms answers:

Here’s something I don’t understand, Scooter, and maybe you can help me out with it.

I was raised on a cattle ranch in Arizona, and lived in a very Republican family. My grandfather actually served in the Arizona state House of Representatives, as a Republican. Living out in the desert, we had to be very resourceful. The nearest town was 40 miles away. We made our own bread, ice cream, desserts, everything. If we got sick, we used folk remedies. Town was an hour drive away, so it was easier to do these things for ourselves.

We prided ourselves on our self-reliance.

I see solar and wind power as the ultimate in self-reliance. If you can cover your roof with solar tiles, and put up small windmills in your yard, and actually make enough power that you’re selling it back to the power company, how on earth is that not a good thing? I don’t understand it. I really don’t. I embrace green energy because it’s a big “FU” to everyone. *I* can make my own power — kind of like when I was a little kid, and we made our own bread.

You know? How is that not the ultimate American expression of self-reliance? I don’t understand why Republicans sneer at it and work to actively undermine it, I really don’t.

EDIT: To Moody: I think, from your comment, you have some misconceptions about Liberals. I think that I have views and beliefs that don’t fit any pre-conceived notions. Life, and people, are usually a lot more nuanced than we give them credit for.

Susan asks…

Does anyone know of any free “green”…?

Does anyone know of any free “green“/environmental e-mail accounts. in other words I’m looking for something a free e-mail address that has some sort of “green” address ending. Also if you know of a webpage that each time you send a e-mail or such you save a animal or if the company is powered by wind power etc.

Windmill Farms answers:

Assuming you don’t actually mean pot I found this: may be worth a look but you can also try setting your browser to , it’s owned by google I believe but is energy saving.
Also you can use this site:
It’s a kind of word game which as well as increasing your word power donates rice through the UN World food programme for every word you get correct.

Hope this helps.

Bright blessings

Daniel asks…

Making a green powered home help?!?

I’m curious what you need to have a home electricaly independent. The home I would like to so this on is built on 2 lots and the house itself is probably twice the size of an average suburban home that costs $200,000-$300,000. It takes up a little less energy though than most homes. My plan is to plant solar panels all over the roof and maybe 2 or 3 small wind turbines. How much money would this cost?
Im sorry i didnt know this was such a detailed question. The home is up north, 20 min north of Green Bay Wisconsin. It isnt actually my home but someday will be inherited from my grandparents. Space is not an issue, ever. Their is alot of wind so i would assume that any wind powered generator would work. The house is only open during the summer. Maybe that will help a little more. I just want a real rough estimate of price over all. Including batteries.

Windmill Farms answers:

Total cost would be dictated by your location, usable roof space, and feasibility of your property (excess shading can make your entire project moot). Another very important factor you did not explicitly state when you say “electrically independent” it whether or not you want to be “off grid” or simply have a “grid-tied” system that will cover 100% of your energy consumption. If you go completely off grid you will have to buy very costly batteries to store the energy your panels or turbines produce during the day so you may use the power at your discretion (at night time).
Another point to realize when talking about renewable energies and worth for a home is the fact that putting solar panels on you home will actually increase the value of your home.

My recommendation would be to talk to people in your area who use wind or solar power to get a sense of how it’s working out for them. As far as costs I would have to recommend Global Solar Center-
They are a great resource for learning about solar costs. If you visit their site they will provide you with a free solar quote, a break-even analysis, your projected annual savings and IRR, as well as all the info you need regarding incentives you will be eligible for. Their team is super informative and after discussing your needs with them, they will point you in the most economical direction.
As a side note- they do work with both solar and wind technology and even offer multiple financing options to help ease the costs of a solar installation.

Sandra asks…

When touring a wind-turbine plant, Obama said that these new green jobs could not be outsourced?

Why did he say that? I realize that the actually assembling of the towers here in the states can not be, but anyone with half a brain knows that the actually manufacturing of both turbines as well as the Components for the blades, towers etc very easily can and most likely will be made in many nations and if he gets the unions involved they will certainly be more cost effective from overseas as well. Why is he attempting to mislead the people saying that these jobs can not be outsourced? When that is simply not the Truth.

Windmill Farms answers:

A VERY strong point you have.

MOST of the wind turbines used here in the US are actually built in either Germany, Spain, Denmark, or China.

There is only ONE U.S. Maker of industrial grade turbines – GE Energy

JUST an amusment… When you LOOK at GE’s wind-power site… It CLEARLY STATES that they have manufacturing plants not JUST in the US… But Germany, Spain, Canada, and China !!

THEY are already outsourced !!

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