Uses Of Wind Energy Pdf

Sharon asks…

name of energy by the vibration of waves?

Windmill Farms answers:

The energy from the flow of water is usually called ‘wave power’ or ‘tidal power’ and has been used here in Britain since Roman times. A recent archaeological dig along the River Thames revealed the remains of a ‘tide mill’.


Tide mill technology slowly advanced over the years, not just here in London but also in Paris. The tide mills of Paris are of particular interest, since they were floating versions which ground grain into flower which was then used to bake bread in the city for the people to buy.


In truth, floating tide mills were common right across Europe, but not here in London, as far as we know.


Remains of an 800 year old London tide mill found.


Here in London there is a famous tide mill near the London [2012] Olympic site.

The River Lee 18thC tide mill

The River Lee tide mill is believed to have worked for up to 16 hours per day non-stop. The River Thames has a tidal race of about 8 knots (about 10 miles per hour) and the mill would have taken advantage of both tidal flows in and out of the river.

Tide mills are far more efficient than wind power because as we know, sometimes there is hardly any wind, but the tides continue to flow in and out no matter what.

The most famous surviving windmill here in London is the Brixton windmill, built in 1816.


The Brixton Windmill and Gardens, is now used as a venue for popular musical events.


Mary asks…

how is chemistry connected/related to energy and power?

Windmill Farms answers:

How Wind Turbines Work The terms wind energy or wind power describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity. Take a look inside a wind turbine to see the various parts. View the wind turbine animation to see how a wind turbine works
How does a Wind Turbine Work? The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity, How does a Wind Turbine Work? Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity, animation
How to calculate wind power P = 0.5 x rho x A x Cp x V3 x Ng x Nb, Cp = Coefficient of performance (.59 {Betz limit} is the maximum thoretically possible, efficiency), Ng = generator efficiency, rho = air density 1.225 kg/m3, Nb = gearbox/bearings efficiency ~1
Investigations on current mills and wind turbines Theory of energy conversion Betz’ theoryairfoil theory –lift and dragvertical axis free stream turbinesvertical vs. Horizontal axisdrag vs. Lift based designsanalytical modell for lift based design –problemspitch-variable design –use of dragcomputational, pdf file
Power available in the wind
EK=m.v2/2 ; Pw=r.A.v3/2 ==> r=airdensity=1.25kg/m3; v=windspeed; A = rotor swept area; 4 Beaufort (light breeze)=21-30km/h ; Ptot=hW.hG.r.A.v3/2 ==> hG=generator efficiency; hW=windmill efficiency; Pm mechanical power (Watts) = 0.593 Pw available wind power (the Betz coefficient: max efficiency for propeller type windmills)
Weather Conversion Calculators Distance Conversion Calculator, Speed Conversion Calculator, Pressure Conversion Calculator, Weight Conversion Calculator, Volume Conversion Calculator, Wind Chill Calculator, Surface – Cross / Head / Tail Wind Calculator, Flight Level – Cross / Head / Tail Wind Calculator, Temperature Calculator, Relative Humidity Calculator, Heat Stress Index Calculator, Fighter Index of Thermal Stress, Height and Temperature D-Val Calculator, Pressure Altitude Calculator, Density / Pressure Altitude Calculator

Susan asks…

Can i use this motor for a wind turbine generator?

I would like to use this motor for my wind turbine im building but have no idea what type of motor it is. Im new to this so im clueless. The motor is off an old sump pump i can’t use anymore as the case has cracked but still runs good.
Its a davey sumppump dv15va-1
phase 1
0.15 kw
He is a picture of it and other info on the website

I would like to know what type of motor it is e.g. DC AC PMA
Any info would be helpful thanks in advance.


Windmill Farms answers:

Hey Jason, it is very unlikely you’ll be able to use that motor to produce electricity from a wind turbine, or any mechanical source. It is AC, not DC, not PMA, and is most likely brushless. Since it is single phase, it will also have a starting circuit included, which further complicates the matter. That motor might make a good fan, with its RPM rating, and fairly low torque and energy use, but you won’t even be able to power a flashlight from it no matter how fast you spin it. It’s like walking around a junk yard with a cylinder in your hand asking if you can use it to run a lawnmower. A good wind turbine starts with aerodynamic design, rotation rates and torque values, not the motor looking for a propeller.

We’ve built a few devices like this, one of my favorite motors to use as a generator for a wind turbine, or anything, is the electric scooter motor. They are small, lightweight, DC permanent magnet, have ball bearings so very little start up torque, and don’t cost much. I built a small electric cart for the kids with a 250 watt 24 volt one that goes about 12 mph, but when you coast down a good steep hill much faster than that then hit the button, it makes a good battery charger from the wheel rotation, so it should work well in a wind turbine application as well. I’ll include a good link to buy them below. If you get one, make sure you are up a notch on voltage. If you are trying to charge 12 volt batteries, get a 24 volt motor. For 24 volt batteries, go for 36 or 48 volt motors, and so on. Once you start spinning the motor, and the rpm is enough for the motor voltage to exceed the battery voltage, then the battery will absorb any excess voltage and turn it into amperage, which is what you want to have happen. Turning the motor faster will not raise the voltage, but increase both the torque the motor is extracting from the turbine, and amps being delivered to the battery. Make sure you put a large diode in the line from the motor to the battery, or the battery will turn the propeller on the turbine when the wind dies down and drain the battery again.

I checked the Davey website for specs on you unit, I could only find the D15, not the DV, but it is probably an older, or newer model of the same unit. That link is below as well. Good luck Jason, and take care. Rudydoo

Richard asks…

What is the Victorian Energy Efficient Certificate and how does it work?

There is a company offering to exchange and install certain light globes for more efficient ones without charge. A certificate detailing this action is then created. In exchange the householder assigns their rights under this certificate to the installing company which can sell the rights to an energy service. Have others used this service, and what are the implications?

Windmill Farms answers:

[PDF] Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Certificate Trading: the …File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
1 Apr 2009 … The National Electricity Market works well. – The Tradeable Renewable Energy Certificate Scheme has worked well for low-cost RE: wind, … – Similar pages -

Energy use by sector – Sustainability VictoriaInformation about energy use by sector in Victoria. – Cached – Similar pages -

Energy use in Victoria – Sustainability Victoria7 Nov 2008 … A key challenge for Victoria is the significant growth in the demand for energy. Our energy consumption has doubled since 1973. … – Cached – Similar pages -

[PDF] Modeling Renewable Energy Certificate PricesFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
23 Apr 2007 … The Victorian Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (VRET) …. Works reasonably well in terms of project selection (picks the right sort of … – Similar pages -
by S Wallace – 2007 – Cited by 1 – Related articles

Nancy asks…

How does energy from a wind turbine get into your home?

As in, How is it connected to your house? Is it connected to power lines or what?

Windmill Farms answers:

You can get a small scale wind turbine that will generate 400 Watts or more of voltage which can power a house if you wanted but every wind turbine has a step up or step down transformer which places the voltage directly to a load or source ( your house or a factory or to the grid). House holds in the US run on 120 volts AC and 20 amps of current. When a wind turbine ( a small one) is generating 400 volts or more a “step down” transformer is used to reduce that into 120 volt ac, 20 amp at 60 hz for household use. Check this out and you can see the difference and of large to small turbines, how much voltage they produce along with how the voltage generated can be directed to a house of a facility or onto the grid for widespread use.


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Wind Energy Advantages And Disadvantages

James asks…


give some advantages and disadvantages

Windmill Farms answers:

Wind energy can be harnessed and used as a source of power.
Wind energy can clear the local atmosphere of pollution.
Wind energy along with the uneven heating of the earth’s surface creates global wind belts.
Wind energy is a mode of transportation for seed dispersal.

Wind energy can cause great damage in tornadoes and hurricanes.
Wind energy can sink a sailboat.
Wind energy can delay aircraft departures and arrivals.

Robert asks…

Does anyone know anything about wind energy?

I am doing a project on wind energy and i need some more information on the subject. If anyone knows anything about wind energy or wind turbines i would be more than happy to hear about your ideas.

Windmill Farms answers:

Wind speed is measured (in knots) by the Beaufort Scale.


Power of the Wind

Advatantages & disadvantages of Wind Power

Renewable Energy – the most reliable source of renewable energy is water power, most especially tidal water power.

Here in London in Roman times and right into the early Industrial Revolution of the 18thC there were dozens of tide mills along the banks of the River Thames.
How did they work. A simple mechanism which allowed a massive wheel or set of wheels to rotate in the direction of the tidal flow and then to reverse as the tide in the River Thames changed direction. So efficient were these tide mills, that one, which still survives today, could be in continuous production of power to drive flour mill machinery for up to 16 hours per day.

Medieval tide mill found at Greenwich – where I live.


There is still one surviving windmill here in London, it dates from about 1800 and is at Brixton.

Charles asks…

what are some advantages and disadvantages of bio-energy?

please answer with as many as you can with as much detail as possible

Windmill Farms answers:

Bio energy means energy involving some kind of life (so wind/solar/hydro – power are not included)
i’m sure you know that but just to be clear.

There are many different types (and i don’t know them all by any stretch of the imagination)

Anaerobic digestion: it runs from any biological matter but mostly from animal/human waste (toilet waste i mean) and also from landfill drainage so it doesn’t take much energy to extract like oil or nuclear. It takes allot to build a plant though and it’s much less efficient in terms of making up the energy used to build it. However, it is sustainable and has many places of usage particularly near large farms.

Then there is combustion of wood or other bio matter which is preferable in terms of sustainable resource but not in terms of efficiency of combustion or distribution. However wood is more effectively used as fuel locally than oil which has to be transported great distances.

With natural gas there is are many positive aspects such as the conversion of methane (a very powerful greenhouse gas) carbon dioxide and water (CO2 still a green house gas but actually much less potent). It is less efficient as, say LPG, however again when harnessed locally it makes up for some of the lack in efficiency. That is to say because the LPG must be accessed, processed and transported from one of relatively very few places in the world.

In other words with my 3 examples, and i’m certain this applies to other forms of bio energy (sorry i don’t know that much about any others), it is not so much the efficiency of the fuel that is important but partly the sustainability but also the fact that biological matter is all across the planet but the alternatives are not and they take a great deal of unsustainable energy to access and transport. A new attitude towards energy and it’s distribution and implementation would make (in my opinion) bio energy at least a contribution to global energy.

Chris asks…

I need help on wind energy?

what are the pros and cons of wind energy

Windmill Farms answers:

Look here:

Maria asks…

3 advantages and disadvantages for wind energy?

please..its for homeowrk.! PLEASE?

Windmill Farms answers:


1. One of the greatest advantages is that it is ample.
2. Secondly, it is renewable.
3. It is widely distributed, cheap, and also helps in reducing toxic gas emissions.


1. The main disadvantage regarding wind power is down to the winds unreliability factor. In many areas, the winds strength is too low to support a wind turbine or wind farm, and this is where the use of solar power or geothermal power could be great alternatives.
2. Wind turbines generally produce allot less electricity than the average fossil fuelled power station, requiring multiple wind turbines to be built in order to make an impact.
3. Wind turbine construction can be very expensive and costly to surrounding wildlife during the build process.

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Renewable Energy World

Thomas asks…

What are the effects of renewable energy used in 3rd world business?

For a graduate project in Asia, I am looking at renewable energy and its effects on growing businesses. I want to look at developed and developing businesses that use renewable energy. Can anyone point me in the right direction with regards to finding areas in Asia to research? I wanted to stick with 3rd world.

Windmill Farms answers:

The best renewable energy is oil & gas. Our plants recycle Co2 into oil & gas.So we will never run out of oil.

Ruth asks…

Help renewable energy and nuclear!?

how is renewable energy better for our health than nuclear energy

Windmill Farms answers:

Renewable energy is a better choice than nuclear energy because nuclear energy is very dangerous. Nuclear energy only represents a small amount of energy that the world uses. Most of the world uses coal, solar, wind, and hydroelectricity to generate energy. Nuclear energy also is linked to radiation as well and can have dangerous affects on health such as cancer-causing problems. Hope this helps you!

Mark asks…

what do you think about renewable energy?

if you like or dislike it?
why do you think so?

im looking a for a wide range a opinions to aid me write an article :)

it would also be greatly appreciated if you could tell me what sort of category you fall into e.g. an enviromental organisation etc

Windmill Farms answers:

I think renewable energy is absolutely essential to the future of humanity.

Burning of fossil fuels generates CO2 which obviously causes climate change and could lead to sever consequences for the whole planet in the future.

Secondly fossil fuels are starting to run out anyway, meanwhile worldwide energy demand is going up so there’s really no choice about finding an alternative even for those who are in denial about climate change.

I don’t think that bio-fuels are a viable option because you need a large area of land to produce a relatively small amount of fuel. Also there is a limited amount of productive land available that is also required to produce food.

I’m not sure about Nuclear power. I don’t think this is a renewable source of energy because there’s only a finite amount of uranium can be mined and this will eventually run out as well.

Wind power is a good source of renewable energy although the drawbacks are that wind turbines are fairly high maintenance and therefore quite a substantial ongoing expense, Also they only generate power when the wind is blowing.

Solar is probably the most viable power source for the future. Solar panels like all electronics will become cheaper as production techniques are refined and happens on a larger scale. There are several million square miles of desert in the world where solar power stations could be built and the only major obstacle is transporting the power from these desert region to other parts of the world where the power is to be used. Another way solar power may be used is to produce hydrogen by building floating solar stations on the ocean.

Mary asks…

renewable and non renewable energy sources?

right so im year 10, and we have an exam coming up in november but we havent covered physics, and i took separate sciences, so i should have.. and well our teachers scared we’re gonna fail so he set us homework to sort of wise us up about it? the homework was to write a letter to gordon brown explaining the current situation on renewable and non renewable energy sources, what they are, why they are going to run out, what will we do when they do run out, what the effects on us and the environment are, what we can do to prevent or prolong them from going, (obviously about the non renewable ones)
and um this sorta has to be in tomorrow, he dosent give us much time, ive been looking through revision books and all over the internet since half 3 and just dont know the answers to these questions, your help would be GREATLY appreciated :/
thanks xx

Windmill Farms answers:

1. Non-renewable energy sources = Coal, gasoline, heating oil, natural gas.

Renewable energy sources = sunlight, wind, firewood.

2. The non-renewable energy sources are deposits (plant matter, compressed) hundreds of millions of years old. New deposits are difficult to find.

U.S. Supplies: 200-year supply of coal, 100-year supply of natural gas.

World supply of gasoline and heating oil is a 40-year supply.

3. Effects on the environment: Burning of non-renewable resources releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, causing Global Warming, major changes in climate. The carbon dioxide is trapped in the atmosphere for 200 years, so major climate changes are fairly permanent, and cause farms to produce less vegetables and grains, so people will starve.

4. What we can do: Build solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity. Build wind turbines to convert wind to electricity. Power our cars and houses with the electricity produced by solar and wind energy.

Good luck with your paper!

Sandy asks…

Why are governments around the world so reluctant to switch from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources?

State The Following:
1: Answer
2: Reason (if applicable)
3: Any Other relevant Information

Windmill Farms answers:

Because their respective economies would completely tank without fossil fuels! We absolutely need them to function.

Renewable energy is nothing but a warm and fuzzy fantasy as of now. They are all inefficient sources of energy, with the exception of the highly controversial nuclear energy, a completely clean source, but with baggage (i.e. Nuclear waste and the fear of a meltdown).

If they were viable solutions, we’d be using them right now. Don’t believe the garbage that the oil companies have politicians in the bag. If there were alternatives that were better, they would compete on the open market and beat out fossil fuels. Oil companies would have to buy off EVERYONE that invested in, produced, consumed, and advocated for clean renewable sources. Not even realistic.

Besides, the government is heavily subsidizing renewable energy already. So much for the oil companies buying off the politicians to subdue green energy. And there are dozens of huge corporations that are receiving government subsidies (e.g. GE) for and are promoting renewables.

The short answer is that fossil fuels are much more efficient and can deliver more energy than what renewables can (barring nuclear). Green energy sources are impractical and inefficient.

To get a meager amount of our energy needs from wind energy, we’d need wind farms with a landmass the size of MN and TX combined, all for a small percentage of our needs. Plus they can only operate in ideal conditions, 15-45 mph winds. Anything below 15 and they don’t spin, anything over 45 and they will break. And if the wind doesn’t blow, they are either idle or have a gas powered turbine that spins them.

Ethanol is another wasteful product. Ethanol deprives us of a food source, since farmers dedicate more of their crops for ethanol or only grow ethanol type crops (usually corn), which in turn leads to starvation in other poorer countries due to less supply, but it also drives up the cost of what is on the market. On top of that, more land is converted to cropland, which leads to deforestation and loss of habitat, erodes the topsoil and leeches nutrients, and lowers the water table, due to the high requirement for water during the ethanol processing. Beside all that, ethanol releases about as much energy as it takes to produce it, thus it is almost a zero sum gain.

The rest are even more inefficient than the two above (i.e. Solar and geo-thermal). And as for hydro, we don’t have enough river currents or dams to produce even close to what our energy requirements are.

All in all, renewable are nice in theory and for environmentalism, but in the real world they are impractical and inefficient. Unless we are talking nuclear energy, the most clean and renewable source there is. Problem is the stigma attached to it because of 2 meltdowns, and the problem of what to do with the waste.

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Wind Power Cost

Susan asks…

What are two good environmentally friendly energy sources and why? One of them has to be wind energy.?

What energy sources (one must be wind) are the most environmentally friendly, but also create enough electricity for a city to use. Please explain why you chose those energy sources. You must chose wind power as one of the sources and you can chose the second source.

Windmill Farms answers:

I live in Florida where we have the Gulf Stream current that comes out of the gulf and rolls and wraps its way up the east coast. I have read over the years that there is actually technology in the works to utilize this powerful current to generate an endless source of power and send it back to the grid. The ocean current actually turn huge turbines. This in turn would work similar to a wind mill just under water.

A lot of folks are concerned about the possible damage to the ecosystem and that the fish will swim through the turbines and be killed and injured by the forceful spinning device. Others fear it will disrupt the sea travel lanes of fish.

Another is Geothermal energy…another low waste source that uses the heat from the core of the earth to produce energy kind of like a steam engine. They work best in places without aquifers. It would be nearly impossible to drill for one in Florida. The midwest has them I think. Again they may cost a bit to drill and hook up but once you have it going I think you are living on free energy. The big power companies should look into this form of power. They may have I havent read up on that yet.

My thinking is that as long as it is not oil that we are pumping out of the earth and there is no waste involved go for it. The construction phase may be a little harsh on the environment, but have you taken a look outside your window recently? If you see a building or a road or anything manmade, guess what we destroyed something there too. Man is the biggest and most deadly living creature on the planet. It is truly too bad we didnt learn from the Native American Indians as to how to live in harmony with the land.

Ruth asks…

If Obamacare and green energy are healthier and economy boosting, why do Cons want to repeal them?

Everyone wants the economy to improve so why wouldn’t you want these?
In Mass., under Romney, healthcare created the most jobs of any sector. The minimal extra cost caused a huge boost in revenue and employment.
Green energy is a proven method of free fuel and electricity. Just look at your solar powered calculators which work forever and never needs batteries. Now think bigger. Sure the sun goes down, but capacitors and rechargable batteries solve that. On the pacific coast, some of the strongest wind occurs between 2-3am, so wind power is always an option.

Windmill Farms answers:

IF these things were so great, why have so many companies that we paid hundreds of millions of dollars to, failed in the last year? Also, sometimes what is most important is not whether something creates more government jobs, but IS IS CONSTITUTIONAL?

Paul asks…

Whats the best way to give self generated electricity to an island?

School project, I can buy products like oil and coal but I need methods to use to generate it free and stuff. E.g. Wind Power (wind turbines). So does anyone know other methods and how much they cost to set up. Please help, thank you

Windmill Farms answers:

The first thought that came to my mind is to build a water wheel. The main reason is that it is simple and cheap. The options of burning coal, turning it into steam, rotating the turbine, and then producing electricity seem more complicated. The price of water turbine is high. One important question to consider is whether or not the electricity you produce, is not only usable, but also cost-effective. In addition, to build a electricity plant with wind power or coal require lots of equipment and labor, which add substantially to the cost. To meet the goals of simplicity and cost-effectiveness, I think a water wheel is best of all three options.

Lisa asks…

Are we being gouged by the electric company?

I’ve noticed a new charge on our electric bill called PCA. It was explained that it stands for Power Cost Adjustment, which varies from month to month to compensate for the regular fluctuations in the price of the coal and natural gas used to generate the electricity you consume.
What a crock! Our house is totally electric. Our last bill was $423.00 for the electricity…the PCA charge was $268.00. Doesn’t the cost of the electricity already factor in the cost of making it? But now we have to pay for it to be generated. I think a wind generator made specifically for one home’s electrical needs would be money well spent. Any ideas if this PCA charge is legal? Any ideas on where we can find alternate sources of electricity for our home? As high as the bill is, we’re going to be left in the dark anyway.

Windmill Farms answers:

The state review board is looking into it to decide if the price hike is legal. Unfortunatly it could take up to three months to decide if it is legal.

Chris asks…

Is there such a battery that can hold electricity from a power station?

I mean, if there was a wind powered power station, could all the electricity generated be stored in a giant battery on the station?

Windmill Farms answers:


Depends on how much energy you want stored for how long, but it would be bigger than the wind turbine itself, and that’s only enough for a day. And, the maintenance costs of the battery bank would be huge.

Just a sample calculation, for a 3MW turbine.

One big marine battery can hold about 100 amp-hrs, or 1kW-hr.
To store 3MW for 24 hours you need 72MW-hrs. Dividing, you need 72000 batteries. Adding for losses, that is more than 100000 batteries. At $300 each, that is $30 million just for the batteries, and double that for the rest of the infrastructure, chargers, regulators, inverters, etc.

If each battery take 2 cubic feet, for access, that is 200000 cubic feet, or a structure 50′ x 50′ by 80′. Probably double that for access, etc.


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Vertical Wind Power Systems

Mark asks…

What happens to heat in an atmosphere when pressure is low?

Also what are factors that could affect pressure in the area

Windmill Farms answers:

When the pressure is low, then…

Extratropical cyclones form as waves along weather fronts due to a passing by shortwave aloft or upper level jet streak before occluding later in their life cycle as cold core cyclones.[13][14][15] [16] Polar lows are small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low-pressure systems that are found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They are part of the larger class of mesoscale weather systems. Polar lows can be difficult to detect using conventional weather reports and are a hazard to high-latitude operations, such as shipping and gas and oil platforms. They are vigorous systems that have near-surface winds of at least 17 metres per second (38 mph).[17]

Tropical cyclones form due to latent heat driven by significant thunderstorm activity, and are warm core with well-defined circulations.[18] Certain criteria need to be met for their formation. In most situations, water temperatures of at least 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) are needed down to a depth of at least 50 m (160 ft);[19] waters of this temperature cause the overlying atmosphere to be unstable enough to sustain convection and thunderstorms.[20] Another factor is rapid cooling with height, which allows the release of the heat of condensation that powers a tropical cyclone.[19] High humidity is needed, especially in the lower-to-mid troposphere; when there is a great deal of moisture in the atmosphere, conditions are more favorable for disturbances to develop.[19] Low amounts of wind shear are needed, as high shear is disruptive to the storm’s circulation.[19] Lastly, a formative tropical cyclone needs a pre-existing system of disturbed weather, although without a circulation no cyclonic development will take place.[19] Mesocyclones form as warm core cyclones over land, and can lead to tornado formation.[21] Waterspouts can also form from mesocyclones, but more often develop from environments of high instability and low vertical wind shear.[22]
In deserts, lack of ground and plant moisture that would normally provide evaporative cooling can lead to intense, rapid solar heating of the lower layers of air. The hot air is less dense than surrounding cooler air. This, combined with the rising of the hot air, results in a low-pressure area called a thermal low.[23] Monsoon circulations are caused by thermal lows which form over large areas of land and their strength is driven by how land heats quicker than the surrounding nearby ocean. This creates a steady wind blowing toward the land, bringing the moist near-surface air over the oceans with it.[24] Similar rainfall is caused by the moist ocean air being lifted upwards by mountains,[25] surface heating,[26] convergence at the surface,[27] divergence aloft, or from storm-produced outflows at the surface.[28] However the lifting occurs, the air cools due expansion in lower pressure, which in turn produces condensation. In winter, the land cools off quickly, but the ocean keeps the heat longer due to its higher specific heat. The hot air over the ocean rises, creating a low-pressure area and a breeze from land to ocean while a large area of drying high pressure is formed over the land, increased by wintertime cooling.[24] Monsoons are similar to sea and land breezes, a term usually referring to the localized, diurnal (daily) cycle of circulation near coastlines everywhere, but they are much larger in scale, stronger and seasonal.[29]


Make note that this all depends on the type of climate and the setting! There is exactly no formula to determine the nature of heat when pressure is low.

Good luck!

Donald asks…


The good news .. your great aunt tilley just left you her farm since you were her favourite relative! The bad news .. the farm has not been modernized since 1867!!
Your mission now is to come up with a plan to make the farm self-sufficient in terms of electrical energy production.

About the farm:

The farm is primarily a dairy farm on 100 ha of south-sloping land. It has a good sized house, a large dairy barn with a milking parlour and two vertical silos. The land is mostly planted for pasture and hay. There is a fast-flowing stream running through the property. The region has an average annual wind speed of 12 km/h and approximately 65% of the days are sunny.

Answer the following.

1) Explain the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources of energy. Give two examples for each.

2) One of the ways to save energy is to replace outdated incadescent light bulbs with fluorescent bulbs. Research and suggest 4 other energy saving tips for this farm without comprimising lifestyle (eg: washing clothes by hand is a NO-NO!)

Windmill Farms answers:

Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (100 mph) occur.

Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable.

“Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.”

Wind power:
Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically.Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms.

Since wind speed is not constant, a wind farm’s annual energy production is never as much as the sum of the generator nameplate ratings multiplied by the total hours in a year. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favorable sites. For example, a 1 MW turbine with a capacity factor of 35% will only produce an average of 0.35 MW. Over a year, output would be .35x24x365 = 3,066 MWh instead of 24×365 = 8,760 MWh. Online data is available for some locations and the capacity factor can be calculated from the yearly output.

Water power:
Energy in water (in the form of kinetic energy, temperature differences or salinity gradients) can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air,even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy.
There are many forms of water energy:

* Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Examples are the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana.
* Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS). There are many of these installations around the world, including several delivering around 50 kW in the Solomon Islands.
* Damless hydro systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without using a dam.
* Ocean energy describes all the technologies to harness energy from the ocean and the sea:
o Marine current power. Similar to tidal stream power, uses the kinetic energy of marine currents
o Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between the warmer surface of the ocean and the colder lower recesses. To this end, it employs a cyclic heat engine. OTEC has not been field-tested on a large scale.
O Tidal power captures energy from the tides.

Solar energy:
A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight, while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified. Assemblies of cells are used to make solar panels, solar modules, or photovoltaic arrays. Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells in producing electricity for practical use. The energy generated this way is an example of solar energy.

Bio fuels:
Plants use photosynthesis to grow and produce biomass. Also known as biomatter, biomass can be used directly as fuel or to produce biofuels. Agriculturally produced biomass fuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol and bagasse (often a by-product of sugar cane cultivation) can be burned in internal combustion engines or boilers. Typically biofuel is burned to release its stored chemical energy. Research into more efficient methods of converting biofuels and other fuels into electricity utilizing fuel cells is an area of very active work.

Solid biomass:
Biogas can easily be produced from current waste streams, such as paper production, sugar production, sewage, animal waste and so forth. These various waste streams have to be slurried together and allowed to naturally ferment, producing methane gas. This can be done by converting current sewage plants into biogas plants. When a biogas plant has extracted all the methane it can, the remains are sometimes more suitable as fertilizer than the original biomass.

Geothermal energy:

Jenny asks…

Do you think they should include these in the new infrastructure?

Barack Obama said he wants to focus on fixing the infrastructure of America. He wants to build new roads and bridges. Good for him. Because energy is a hot button, I don’t doubt he’s going to put that on the back burner. Here is what I’m wondering. Do you think they should put helices on the roads? I’m talking about wind turbines over highways that run off the wind gusts from speeding cars. They actually have those now. I’ve seen some that are overhanging from freeways. Each of them has a helix on it. They also have vertical wind turbines inside guardrails that spin from the wind generated from cars. What do you think of that? Do you think they should encompass those into the new infrastructure?
Here is a picture of what I’m talking about.

Windmill Farms answers:

I have read about incorporating new technology into the transportation systems of the future and I am in favor of the idea of including wind turbines on highway overpasses. Wind turbines are a great source of alternative energy, that are cost effective and low maintenance. This new technology will generate enough power for several cities across the country.

Richard asks…

A funny Physics Problem. please help?

1. Alanzo, running at a constant 3 m/s, is the first to reach you. You stagger to your feet as he approaches, but before you can speak even the first word of your explanation, Alanzo tackles you in a perfectly inelastic collision. If you were stationary when hit and have a mass of 70 kg, what is the kinetic energy (in J) of you and Alanzo together after the collision? You may consider the collision takes place in 1-D, that you and Alanzo form an isolated system, and that Alazno’s mass is 80 kg.

2. You quickly recover from the tackle and shove Alanzo aside. By now Zacarias has arrived on the scene and you greet him warmly by completely burying the 15 cm blade of your Fällkniven F1 hunting knife in his chest. If you perform 300 J of work in the process and the blade enters normal to the surface of his chest, what is the magnitude of the average resistive force (in N) that Zacarias’s chest exerts on your knife?

3. You quickly grab the bourbon bottle from the table, spin around, and smash it across Alanzo’s face, just as he was preparing to hit you again. He staggers away, disoriented, but finally pulls himself together about 5 m from you. During this time you have retrieved your knife from the lifeless Zacarias and have thrown it with a speed of 20 m/s directly at Alanzo. The impact of the knife on his neck causes Alanzo’s to stagger backward and subsequently fall through a window and down to the alley below. During his fall, Alanzo is subject to a constant force of wind resistance of 100 N. If he hits the ground with a speed of 11 m/s, how high (in m) is the window from the ground? Alanzo’s mass is 80 kg and his initial vertical speed when he fell through the window is zero.

4. As a courtesy to the owner of the Grasshopper, you drag the lifeless, but very bloody, 80 kg body of Zacarias 10 m to the outside of the bar. The force you apply to pull the body is at a 60° angle to the floor. What is the work (in J) done by this pulling force if you drag the body at constant velocity? The coefficient of kinetic friction between the body and the floor is 0.2.

5. What is the power (in W) exerted by your pulling force if you pull the body 10 m in 50 seconds?

6. What is the power (in W) exerted by the force of kinetic friction acting on the body as you pull it for 10 m in 50 seconds?

Windmill Farms answers:

Yo. Me again. Last time the plus signs where missing for some reason and I ended up deleting my answer by mistake. Here it is again.
1. Ans = 192J
Pbefore = Pafter
m(Alanzo)v(Alanzo) = [m(Alanzo) + m(you)]v(final)
v(final) = m(Alanzo)v(Alanzo)/[m(Alanzo) + m(you)] =

KE = [1/2][m(Alanzo) + m(you)][v(final]^2

2. Ans = 2000N
W = Fs
F = W/s

3. Ans = 7.08m (I’m not sure about this one)
F(Total) = F(Weight) + F(Wind) = – m(Alanzo)g + F(Wind)
F(Total) = m(Alanzo)a(Total)
a(Total) = F(Total)/m(Alanzo) = -m(Alanzo)g/m(Alanzo) + F(Wind)/m(Alanzo) = -g + F(Wind)/m(Alanzo)

[v(Final)]^2 = 2[a(Total)]h
h = |[1/2][v(final)^2]/[a(Total)] = [1/2][v(final)^2]/[-g + F(Wind)/m(Alanzo)]|. Note that the number inbetween the || (absolute value) should be negetive.
4. Ans = 1568 J
F(Normal) = m(Zac)*g
F(Kinetic friction) = uF(Normal)
F(Total) = F(Kinetic friction) – F(Applied) = Zero N
F(Kinetic friction) = F(Applied)
W = F(Applied)s = um(Zac)gs

5. Ans = 31.36 J
P = W/t

6. Ans = 31.36 J
Check Q 4 for reason.

Please do me a favour and pick a best answer for the following. It doesn’t matter which you pick.


Ken asks…

Is Global Warming to Blame For Hurricane Sandy?

Windmill Farms answers:

Global warming may or may not have increased the destructiveness of it. However looking at one incident of weather and blaming it specifically on global warming is the wrong way to go about it. Warming ocean waters due to global warming more than likely did play an effect on the size and power of the hurricane but ENSO also played a large role. That is when warmer ocean waters are brought to the surface. As you can see from the link below we are currently in a neutral phase heading into the positive phase of the ENSO cycle known as El Nino.


The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation also plays somewhat of a role in modulating the ENSO cycle. Though the current understanding is that this El Nino won’t be very strong compared to prior El Ninos it most likely did play somewhat of a role. During El Nino years fewer hurricanes make landfall with the US and fewer hurricanes form due, most likely, to increased vertical wind shear.


Of course during an ENSO event different areas will be affected differently. Some areas having enhanced activity while others having decreased activity.


There are a number of other events that are affecting hurricane Sandy as well including a high pressure system over Greenland and a cold air mass crossing the US.


So while global warming may have played some role in the storm the major effects of it were oscillatory cycles and variable weather patterns. The link between global warming and hurricane activity still remains one of uncertainty though but, as global warming is affecting various parts of hurricane formation dynamics, they will be affected one way or another. It just remains to be seen as to how.


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Is Wind Power Green Energy

Lizzie asks…

How much power do Earth 4 Energy, Energy 4 Green, or Homemade Energy produce?

I want to build a solar/wind power system, but I don’t know which product to go with. One deciding factor could be how much power each one produces.

Windmill Farms answers:

Solar power is really only good for water heating and at that it will only get it to about 60 degrees.

Wind Power is excellent, if you have enough wind. You will need to get your wind recorded for a good 6 months to a year, to really find out if its goona be worth putting one up. They are not cheap and you dont one sitting in your yard doing nothing.

Personally i think the Wind Spire by Mariah Power is the best available.

Her is there website:

Birds also dont hit these spires as much but it might not be available in your country yet

Donna asks…

how do the consumers use the wind energy source?

Windmill Farms answers:

Most power companies offer a ‘green’ power option, which could include wind power, amoung solar and other types of power. It’s usually more expensive, but it may be worth it.

Richard asks…

Good names for a green energy project?

I am doing a green project for my uni work which I need a name for. The project is focusing on renewable energy and how this helps the enviorment. Answers on a postcard or just reply to the questions. Winner gets best answer!!

Windmill Farms answers:

How about
Wind power, the shocking truth.
Construction carbon footprint exceeds claimed power generation savings. Stand-by conventional power stations, running at low efficiency tick-over, further increase the carbon footprint. How entrepreneurs are making fortunes out of wind power subsidies.

Donald asks…

what is green energy?

I hear this all the time companies turn to green energy I know it is some kind of recycable source but what is it

Windmill Farms answers:

Energy is green when it as from a renewable resource and doesn’t cause global warming like solar and wind power.
The three biggest renewable sources are solar, wind and water. Things like burning gas and coal cause greenhouse gases which make global warming.

Laura asks…

Can Someone Please Help Me On The Topic Of Green/Alternative Energy?

can some one tell me the postives and negatives of green energy
Than You
Best Answer will get 10pts
Thank u
will prob b best answer
lots of detail
this is just what i needed
i just need 2 wait for 4 hours
Wow these are both really good answers
i dont know which one 2 pick 4 best answer so i will let the public vote

Windmill Farms answers:

If energy is truly green, we likely accept it without much debate.

But when a green energy has any environmental downside, it can be opposed very strongly, even by Greens. For example, Wind energy… We want it but not in my back yard. We want to have giant turbines a km or more away so that we can not hear them even when they are operating at maximum capacity. We do not want them placed close to bird flyways. We do not want the visual disruption of man made and moving devices cluttering up the landscape.

But people who run electric grids have very different reasons to object to large amounts of wind power. Wind power does drop to very nearly zero output, so someone on the grid must provide an alternative power source, be it coal, oil, gas, or very variable nuclear. This means we must have unused capacity to generate, just sitting idle for the time the wind does not blow.

To use wind extensively we would need to use intelligent electric panels that turn loads on to use up low cost wind when it is available, and off when it is not.

Solar electric has far fewer real enemies. There are no birds being killed, no noise pollution, and wonder of wonders, it supplies a predictable amount of power right when it is needed most, during the daytime. That fits in very well with the needs of the grid, allowing the grid to operate with even less surge capacity.
But solar electric power, thus far has been more costly than most any other energy… The cost of the collectors and the area they must occupy are both very large.

Bio fuels be it bio diesel or ethanol or methane from manure require consumption of resources that may be needed to feed a hungry world. This could be a critical balancing act. Our free market system may not have the wisdom to feed people in preference to feeding engines.

Water power comes in a lot of different forms, and some of those forms have a lot of opponents, particularly when the form causes rivers to be dammed, flooding large areas of good farmland.

Most alternate energy strategies can be improved to eliminate most of the problems people object to, if developers of those systems would just pay some attention to solving the problems!

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Uses Of Wind Energy In Rural Areas

Sandy asks…

project work..plss help!!?

hello guys.. i hv to make a project on wind energy..n it should be very innovative…different from the common ideas…please suggest me.!! n it should b working project.

Windmill Farms answers:

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines. At the end of 2007, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 94.1 gigawatts.[1] Although wind currently produces about 1% of world-wide electricity use,[2] it accounts for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland (2007 data). Globally, wind power generation increased more than fivefold between 2000 and 2007.[1]

Most wind power is generated in the form of electricity. Large scale wind farms are connected to electrical grids. Individual turbines can provide electricity to isolated locations. In windmills, wind energy is used directly as mechanical energy for pumping water or grinding grain.

Wind energy is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions when it displaces fossil-fuel-derived electricity. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand, but it presents extra costs when wind is to be used for a large fraction of demand. However these costs even for quite large percentage penetrations are considered to be modest.[3]

Renewable energy

Hydro power
Solar power
Tidal power
Wave power
Wind power
The siting of turbines has become a controversial issue amongst those concerned about the value of natural landscapes, particularly since the best sites for wind generation tend to be in scenic mountain and oceanside areas.[4]

Main article: History of wind power
The earliest historical reference to a rudimentary windmill was used to power an organ in the 1st century AD.[5] The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century. These were vertical-axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.[6] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.[7] Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist.[8]

In the United States, the development of the “water-pumping windmill” was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America, which were otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout the world, by pumping water from wells to supply the needs of the steam locomotives of those early times.[9]

The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was, for many years, a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America.

The modern wind turbine was developed beginning in the 1980s, although designs are still under development.

Wind energy
For more details on this topic, see Wind.
The origin of wind is complex. The Earth is unevenly heated by the sun resulting in the poles receiving less energy from the sun than the equator does. Also the dry land heats up (and cools down) more quickly than the seas do. The differential heating drives a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the Earth’s surface to the stratosphere which acts as a virtual ceiling. Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (100 mph) occur. Eventually, the wind energy is converted through friction into diffuse heat throughout the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere.

There is an estimated 72 TW of wind energy on the Earth that potentially can be commercially viable.[10] Not all the energy of the wind flowing past a given point can be recovered (see Betz’ law).

Laura asks…

How would you compare ocean energy and wind energy?

maybe in paragraph form or in dotted form like

* blah
* blah

Windmill Farms answers:

Ocean energy

The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun’s heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves.

Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth’s surface, making them the world’s largest solar collectors. The sun’s heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this temperature difference creates thermal energy. Just a small portion of the heat trapped in the ocean could power the world.

Ocean thermal energy is used for many applications, including electricity generation. There are three types of electricity conversion
systems: closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid. Closed-cycle systems use the ocean’s warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid, which has a low-boiling point, such as ammonia. The vapor expands and turns a turbine. The turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity. Open-cycle systems actually boil the seawater by operating at low pressures. This produces steam that passes through a turbine/generator. And hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle systems.

Ocean mechanical energy is quite different from ocean thermal energy. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon, and waves are driven primarily by the winds. As a result, tides and waves are intermittent sources of energy, while ocean thermal energy is fairly constant. Also, unlike thermal energy, the electricity conversion of both tidal and wave energy usually involves mechanical devices.

A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines, activating a generator. For wave energy conversion, there are three basic systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs; float systems that drive hydraulic pumps; and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air within a container. The mechanical power created from these systems either directly activates a generator or transfers to a working fluid, water, or air, which then drives a turbine/generator.

Wind energy
Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air. It has been used for hundreds of years for sailing, grinding grain, and for irrigation. Wind energy systems convert this kinetic energy to more useful forms of power. Wind energy systems for irrigation and milling have been in use since ancient times and since the beginning of the 20th century it is being used to generate electric power. Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas.

Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. Or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Small wind turbines called aero-generators can be used to charge large batteries.

Five nations – Germany, USA, Denmark, Spain and India – account for 80% of the world’s installed wind energy capacity. Wind energy continues to be the fastest growing renewable energy source with worldwide wind power installed capacity reaching 14,000 MW.

Realizing the growing importance of wind energy, manufacturers have steadily been increasing the unit size of the wind electric generators since the late 1980s. Another important development has been the offshore (i.e. In the sea) wind farms in some regions of Europe, which have several advantages over the on-shore ones. The third major development has been the use of new techniques to assess the wind resource for techno-commercial viability.

Lisa asks…

what are the technical details of generating electricity from wind power?

Windmill Farms answers:

Wind hits fan blades which turn (slowly)
gearing raises the speed to something useful for the generator.

Generator spins. And creates electricity.

Now as a generator increases its output volts with increasing speed we either need a voltage regulator, or a mechanical speed control.

Finally as the wind has more energy at higher wind speeds we need some way of balancing the load currents to the power available.

Either maintain constant load and use blade feathering to reduce the power collected,
or have some type of sink that can accept whatever power you can make available.

Usually this is the electricity grid. In rural areas this has been used for close to a hundred years charging batteries as the sink for power available.

If the batteries are fully charged then either the blades are turned away from the wind, ( not nice as someone has to climb a ladder to do it) or simply switch off the generator and let the blades turn freely ( not good as they can overspeed and damage themselves.)

Commercially controlled feathering of the blades solves the problem.

Charles asks…

how does power wind mill works? can it be used for rural area electric supply?

Windmill Farms answers:

The rotational energy of the blades turns a pulley on an auto
alternator to produce 12 volts DC…

Ken asks…

what are the benefits of renewable resources in south africa?

what are the advantages of putting up wind electricity and solar electricity

Windmill Farms answers:

Over the past decade, global use of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, biomass, and biofuel) for generation of electricity has grown significantly, reaching 19% of total power generation in 2010 compared with 14% in 2002. The rise in the use of renewable energy has mainly been driven by increased awareness of effects of climate change and governments’ incentive programs aimed at enhancing the development and the use of green energy.

Potential benefits of renewable energy to Africa
Renewable energy sources offer numerous benefits ranging from contributing to economic growth through the creation of new enterprises and jobs to mitigating the effects of climate change and providing electricity to rural areas.

The fast global growth of the renewable energy industry would foster economic growth mainly through investment and direct and indirect jobs creation.

According to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), 26% of the total reduction in carbon emissions worldwide in 2010 was on account of efficiency gains in renewable energy sources. Increasing the share of renewable energy as a source of power generation will likely accelerate further reductions in these emissions.

In rural areas, the transmission and distribution of power generated from fossil fuels is very costly.

Therefore, using off-grid renewable energy sources in rural areas will help increase access to basic services, including lighting, communications, and water pumping. The use of these increasingly affordable technologies would facilitate the integration and development of African rural populations.

Impediments to the development of renewable energy in Africa
Many factors may compromise the development of renewable energy in Africa:

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Wind Energy Companies

Thomas asks…

How much potential does starting a energy supply company using wind power have?

I’m currently majoring in aerospace engineering at Iowa State and my plans for after graduation are to start up a company in MN and ND. Both of these states are rich in wind energy and have more than enough to go around. Going green is what the government seems to care about these days. With CO2 levels rising, and coal and oil running out- the infinite/renewable resource of wind seems like the way to go…

Q1) is this even a good idea?
Q2) how would i go about starting this up? what would i need?
Q3) Does this have the potential of being a great success?

Windmill Farms answers:

The costs of building a wind energy production facility are prohibitive. Without the 100 percent government subsidies currently being used, nobody in their right mind would make any such proposal. One should plan for these government handouts to disappear at some point.

Also, there are huge problems remaining with management of wind-generated electricity, primarily the unpredictable nature of wind fluctuations, relatively poor efficiency (production below 20 percent of turbine ratings), and inability to store energy for even a few seconds. This results in a net loss of “green”, when you consider the fact that you would still need to have the same number of fossil-fueled or other power stations online, running at nearly full capacity, in order to supply continuous electricity when the wind dies for a few minutes. So, not only have wind-energy generators been a colossal burden upon taxpayers and damaged many wilderness viewsheds permanently, they do not live up to any of their promises of “green” energy.

Recent news reports indicate that some so-called “wind farms” (they don’t actually “grow” anything) in the Bonneville Grid (Pacific NW) have been asked to curtail what little production they have, because there is already a surplus of electrical power from other generators. Some systems in Europe have proven to be so inefficient and expensive to maintain that they are being shut down completely, if not dismantled.

The future is certainly not bright for those involved in trying to implement massive wind-based systems without a major breakthrough in technology. For instance, rather than gigantic vertical rotors, some research shows promise in smaller, horizontal systems that are easier to maintain, but still cost-prohibitive and still subject to the zero efficiency when there is no wind and over-production without storage.

David asks…

Why is the Obama Administration suing wind energy companies for killing birds?

Aren’t Bald Eagles and Spotted Owls a small price to pay for green energy?

Duke Energy will pay $1 million for killing 14 golden eagles at Wyoming wind farms

Wind Energy Company to Pay $1 Million in Bird Deaths

YRU4IT. That’s true but it doesn’t answer the question.
Abstinence is Murder, Are you sure that’s what the law says? Surely Obama could change it with a stroke of his almighty executive pen!
Pat. The conservationists are right about the bird killings.

Windmill Farms answers:

Because they violated the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Duke Energy Renewables acknowledges that it constructed these wind projects in a manner it knew beforehand would likely result in avian deaths.

Since the first wind farms were built a lot has been learnt on how to minimise the number of birds killed and these deaths can be kept at a minimum if those building them follow the guidelines and laws..

The whole purpose of switching to alternative energy is to protect the planet for all of the life we share it with, every species has intrinsic value regardless to its usefulness to humans. There are many examples of how an ecosystem can be damaged when one species is removed.

What is the point in saving the planet if we have killed off all the beautiful animals we share it with, especially when just by following the laws which are laid down we can avoid it.

No body should be above the law, if I break the law I expect to be punished, why should the largest electric power holding company in the United States, with assets in Canada and Latin America be any different.

Donna asks…

I want to invest in wind energy, but am not sure where to put my money.?

I want to invest in the wind energy industry, but I am not sure where would be the best place to put my money.
turbine manufacturers?
consulting firms?
development firms?
construction firms?

Which “component” of the wind energy industry is the smartest place for my money?

Thank you

Windmill Farms answers:

If you want to speculate I suggest AMSC. High risk.

American Superconductor Corporation, an energy technologies company, together with its subsidiaries, provides an array of solutions based on two proprietary technologies, programmable power electronic converters and high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires. Its products, services, and system-level solutions enable generation, delivery, and use of electric power. The company’s AMSC Power Systems segment produces products to increase electrical grid capacity and reliability; supplies electrical systems used in wind turbines; sells power electronic products that regulate wind farm voltage to enable their interconnection to the power grid; licenses proprietary wind turbine designs to manufacturers of such systems; provides consulting services to the wind industry; and offers products that enhance power quality for industrial operations. Its power electronic devices include power electronic converters and thyristor switches; and grid reliability, power quality, and grid interconnection systems consist of Dynamic VAR, Static VAR Compensators, Power Quality-Industrial Voltage Restorer systems, and Power Quality Static VAR compensators; and wind turbine designs and services include design and development, customer training, and support, as well as wind turbine electrical systems and components. This segment offers its products to the transmission and distribution, wind power, and manufacturing industries through manufacturer’s representatives. Its AMSC Superconductors segment manufactures HTS wire and coils; designs and develops HTS products, such as power cables, fault current limiters, and rotating machines, such as motors, generators, and synchronous condensers; and manages large-scale HTS projects, such as HTS power cable system design, manufacturing, and installation. This segment sells its HTS wire to original equipment manufacturers through direct sales force and distributors. The company was founded in 1987 and is headquartered in Devens, Massachusetts.

Daniel asks…

What Wind Energy Company Has The Most Potential Future Growth?

the ticker symbol and explain please.

Windmill Farms answers:

That is kind of a loaded question. It’s sort of like asking how many apples will grow from a given apple seed. In tough times like these especially, but anytime you want the company with the strongest balance sheet. Look at a company’s past earnings, and see who is growing them the fastest. To my knowledge all the purely wind companies aren’t making money on their own. They are relying on government subsidies. I think GE (general electric) has some patents relating to wind turbines. I don’t think they sell the wind energy, but I think they do sell the turbines. You might want to check to make sure though, because my memory fails me sometimes. Good luck in your quest.

Helen asks…

DO you think wind energy is viable if govt. stops extending subsidies ?

Windmill Farms answers:

Subsidies for wind? Do you mean the TAX BREAKS? There are NO subsidies for commercial wind turbines. They are allowed to have tax breaks however. Of course so is every single homeowner in the U.S.A. Every homeowner can write off the interest paid on their home on their taxes….a tax break!

Cool, huh?

Nope, sorry, wind and solar, only tax breaks, no subsidies. To look for subsidies from the Government you need to look at the nuclear, coal, and oil industries….THEY receive millions (if not billions) in actual subsidies.

Subsidies means the tax payers (We The People) have money taken out of your taxes and sent as a big fat check to the nuclear, coal and oil industries.

Gives you a big warm fuzzy feeling to know that you pay at the pump, AND via your taxes to the oil companies, huh?

Permaculture homesteading/farming over 20 years
Husband worked in the wind turbine industry

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Renewable Energy Companies

Maria asks…

Stocks in Solar/Renewable Energy Industry?

The company I’m working for is willing to give me stock options at $.25/share… I never ownned stock before and I dont have any clue how this works, all I know is that if the company grows, my stock grows… I was woondering if Im getting a good deal. The company is still private and its going public this year..

Solar/Renewable Energy Industry a good place to invest your money? Does it yeild big return?

Windmill Farms answers:

Most likely, the options cost you nothing. What the company is saying is that at a later time, you are allowed to buy a certain number of shares of the company at 4/$1. If, at that time, the stock is $5, then you can turn right around and sell it on the open market, and make money. On the other hand, if the stock is 0.24, then your options are worthless.

How much the option is worth depends on the total number of shares issued. If there are 10,000 shares outstanding, and you are allowed to buy 100, then that’s 1% of the company. Pretty good, if it turns out to be the next Microsoft or Google. If there are 50 million shares, then that’s not much.

An initial public offering of a stock is typically at $5 or more. Are you VERY SURE that the company is going public this year? These are hard times, and a startup has to be doing well to go public. Personally, I would be very surprised to see a new solar company go public in the coming year.

If I actually had to pay money to buy the options, now, I would be doubly suspicious of whether the company is actually going public. Maybe they’re just trying to raise money (although, I don’t know how much they could get from you).

If you have a wealthy and successful relative, I would go to them with the particulars of the deal, and ask them what they would do. Don’t trust Y!A for major financial decisions (not even me!)

John asks…

What energy company offers 100% renewable energy?

I had been researching the option. and it seems that what people can do while the technology catches up is to demand that your energy company uses renewable energy in what they supply to your house. You don’t need your own solar cells on the roof to make sure everything coming to your home is 100% renewable. Check out the video on this California energy company page to see what I mean: It is from XOOM energy in Charlotte, NC and they have 100% renewables in 15 states already.

Just one example of a power company that already offers a 35% and a 100% renewable package for anyone’s home.

Windmill Farms answers:

I’ts a tricky question because the energy required to produce a solar cell is about equivalent to it’s production in 15-20 years. The glass and silicone needed are heated to extreme temperatures and in the QA process a lot of panels are defected, so a real “renewable” is a hydro plant or a wind power generator that are produced using local materials and do not harm the environment in the installation process.

James asks…

What do you guys think about Investing in Renewable Energy Companies?

I plan on investing some of my money in some stocks in a Renewable Energy company, perhaps China Biodiesel International, or Suntech Power Holdings. I plan on buying around $20,000 USD in stocks, assuming that the stock price will rise signifigantly in the next 10-20 years.

1. Do you guys think this would be a smart investment?
2. I’m only 14, and can’t contact a broker, so does anyone know how much one of their stocks cost, or an estimate of how much 1 stock will cost in 2014?

Thank You :)

Windmill Farms answers:

Wow 14 years old with $20,000 to spend and wants to invest it! Not a new car or something?

About renewable energy investment, i work as a mech engineer in alternative energy field and it is definitely taking off well. The amount of opportunities out there in renewable resources will unfold inthe coming years and take over what we know today. Specifically, my interests lie in fuel cells combined w/ PV modules. So i would say to invest in that. The opportunities for profit are there and not going anywhere.
Good luck

Richard asks…

How are oil companies hurt by CO2 emissions reduction policies?

Everyone is aware of the claim that many climate skeptics and certain think tanks and perhaps other entities are often accused of being “in the pay of big oil”. Exxon seems to be the poster boy for that claim as far as the “big oil” side. Here are some things that are confusing me:

1. Amount of funding – It’s hard to get a firm grasp of the numbers for this. I’ve read about individuals receiving funding in the thousands of dollars and some institutions receiving the same or a bit more. I’ve also read numbers like totals over the past years in the single digit millions for all skeptics and think tanks, etc (and from all companies not just Exxon). I don’t understand how giving out thousands or ten of thousands of dollars at a time to a wide array of different people and groups could be any part of a high level strategy for a multi-billion dollar company. Can you see the CEO and CFO of Exxon having a discussion on giving $10k to Patrick Michaels or $100k to Heartland.

2. Consumers use less gas and oil – It is claimed that due to emission cuts, consumers would use less fossil fuels which would hurt the profits. I don’t know much about economics but I do know when a product has an “inelastic demand” and fossil fuels fit that profile. That means oil companies can just adjust the price upwards. People don’t buy (much) less gas based on price (inelastic).

3. Moving into renewable energy – Another claim is that oil companies will have to compete with renewable energies if fossil fuel use is restricted Well, if you visit any energy websites you would see that most major oil companies are going all out for renewable energy. A big one is biofuels. Another is algae based fuel. There are plenty of opportunities for subsidies and research grants and they’re taking full advantage. And this is not small money like the single digit millions handed to skeptics.

4. Hurting the market brand or image – I’m fairly certain that if oil companies were concerned about CO2 reductions causing their product image to be damaged, they would have a very different tactic than handing out $10k to a scientist to write a skeptical paper.

This is why I am so confused with the claim that oil companies are afraid of CO2 emissions cuts hurting their bottom line. The evidence seems to show that they sure are making a substantial effort fight climate policies and in fact they may benefit from it greatly.

So back to the original question and a few more.

1) How are oil companies hurt by climate policy from an economic point of view?

2) How are they not going to benefit from climate policy by embracing subsidized renewable energy markets?

3) When money was given from oil companies to skeptics and groups, who in the company made those decisions and what process and/or company budget guided those decisions?

4) Is there any evidence like emails, internal memos, recorded conversations, etc. which directly show that an oil company was giving money to a person or group specifically to cause misinformation or denial?
“Oil companies stand to lose trillions of dollars in future revenues if policy action is taken to slow carbon emissions.”

This is a common claim (trillions?). And this is the exact type of claim I am looking to see explained in economic terms.
@Markey: The cost of reducing CO2 emissions is a good point. However, I think that there are more companies that just the oil companies that would be in that situation.

And again, I’d like an economics argument that such costs wouldn’t simply be passed on to the consumer. I can find many examples where costs incurred but companies are simply incorporated into the final product price. As a matter of fact, many companies would not survive if they did not do this.

Windmill Farms answers:

Oil companies stand to lose trillions of dollars in future revenues if policy action is taken to slow carbon emissions. Their financial stake is colossal and undeniable (by honest and sensible people). In order to deal with this business challenge they have taken various measures, including deliberately helping to confuse people about climate science. This is a matter of historical fact.

Science, however, does not actually depend on anyone’s confused misunderstanding of it, inability to understand it, or unwillingness to try to understand it.

As difficult as it is for this reality to penetrate dense craniums, science does not depend on ANY opinions or actions or psychological hangups of ANY human who has ever lived or who ever will.

Oil companies have helped confuse a lot of people about this, but you can be sure that they did not become large and successful by being confused themselves.

U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 2010:

“Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems.”

“Choices made now about carbon dioxide emissions reductions will affect climate change impacts experienced not just over the next few decades but also in coming centuries and millennia…Because CO2 in the atmosphere is long lived, it can effectively lock the Earth and future generations into a range of impacts, some of which could become very severe.”

“The Academy membership is composed of approximately 2,100 members and 380 foreign associates, of whom nearly 200 have won Nobel Prizes…election to the Academy is considered one of the highest honors that can be accorded a scientist or engineer.”

“ExxonMobil, year after year, pulls in more money than any company in history. Chevron’s not far behind [but] their value is largely based on fossil-fuel reserves that won’t be burned if we ever take global warming seriously.”

Edit: Re MIke: “Oil companies stand to lose trillions of dollars in future revenues if policy action is taken to slow carbon emissions. This is a common claim (trillions?). And this is the exact type of claim I am looking to see explained in economic terms.”

Actually, Mike, you don’t need to understand economics, or post longwinded anti-science “questions” here, you can get the explanation you claim to seek with Google & grade school multiplication:
1. There are about 1.5 trillion barrels of oil reserves globally plus of course pockets under Arctic Ocean etc, not yet discovered, plus shale plus tar, etc. And it’s clearly TRILLIONS of barrels.
2. Oil is now about $90 per barrel. The price varies, but the long term trend is up

3. Say oil company fossil fuel reserves are a conservative equivalent of 2 trillion barrels worth $80 per. Presto Mike: good old math from school, hated though it may have been: 2 x $80 = $160 trillion.

This is not exactly pocket change, even for scientists, and even if you believe they’re rolling in carbon tax funds with Billy and Rothschild Reptilians on the hollow moon. Http://;_ylt=AoO8wkbSNihO90WVve1VJ0kjzKIX;_ylv=3?qid=20120209141221AASOLgH

Edit2: To fully understand how & why the burden of a new cost or tax on a product is usually SHARED BETWEEN producer and consumer, a basic econ class would help. Or try:

Donald asks…

cost of renewable energy?

I am in high school doing a project for science. I am designing a house (blueprint form) that takes advantage of renewable energy sources. It is an average sized home, 2 floors, and I am including wind turbines, solar energy panels and geothermal heat pumps. Does anyone have any idea what the price of this would be around? and how it compares to the price of a normal house that uses nonrenewable energy sources?

I would appreciate any info you have on this
changed it to one story, about 900 square feet altogether.

Windmill Farms answers:

You have a lot of variables – like the cost of these systems in your area, what builders charge, etc.,etc. – it would really be hard to say.
Also, there are less expensive ways to achieve the same goal, such as using passive solar heating and passive cooling (instead of panels). Geothermal tends to be pretty expensive to install, but if you incorporate other measures, you wouldn’t really need it.
Using all three sources is fine for your project, but I think it would be “overkill” in a real project. You would be producing much more energy than you would need for a house that size.
Also keep in mind that in some areas, excess electricity produced can be sold back to the power company!
You might also get some ideas from this page on energy efficient home design.. Http://
Bottom line? I think it is feasible to build a green home for anywhere from 0 – 10% (or more) higher than a conventional home. There are all kinds of ways to save money on some areas, if you choose to spend more on others. Also, energy efficient homes (or LEED in some areas) may qualify for additional rebates on certain products.
And keep in mind that energy efficient homes will save thousands of dollars over the years in energy bills! This is often overlooked by those looking to build. It is really a case of “pay me now, or pay me later” – in terms of the environment, your health and your wallet.
Hope this helps!!

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Wind Power Generator

Sharon asks…

Energy conservation as it relates to windmills?

Rows of wind-powered generators are used in various windy locations to generate electric power. Does the power generated affect the speed of the wind? Would locations behind the windmills be windier if the windmills weren’t there? Discuss this in terms of energy conservation.

Windmill Farms answers:

Do you mean energy conservation, or the conservation of energy?

The first wind turbine will extract power from the moving air stream, and since energy is conserved (neither created or destroyed), the downstream air will have less energy. The energy of the moving air mass is proportional to the velocity, therefore velocity (aka air speed) will decrease.

The power available from a horizontal axis mill (they look like airplane propellers) is:

Power in watts = (1/2) x (air density) x (swept area) x (wind velocity) cubed. Sorry, it isn’t easy to type formulas in these boxes.

Air density is 1.23 kg/m3 at sea level
swept are in square meters
wind velocity in meters per second

The theoretical limit to efficiency (called the Betz limit) is 59.26%. Real world generators will extract less energy than this. You could use this for the sake of example, and then work backwards to see how much slower the wind immediately behind the first would be. The energy in front of the mill = the energy extracted by the mill + the energy behind the mill.

Have fun with the math.

Sandy asks…

What can I do with 2kw wind power generator?

How many of these wind power generators to power a house?
Generates 2kw per

Windmill Farms answers:

Typical house has a load demand of at least 12 kW.

So you would need at least 6 wind-powered generators
to meet this average power demand.

George asks…

What are the right batteries for a wind generator and where can i find them?

I am looking into building my own wind generator but i cant find the right batteries. Any help would be useful.

Windmill Farms answers:

I think you are looking for deep cycle batteries, the same kind that are used with solar collectors.

Try some of these sites…

Edit – to answer the question “Why not car batteries?” … The difference between a deep-cycle and car battery is that deep-cycle batteries contain solid lead and withstand “deep-cycling” (losing up to 80% charge) better than automotive batteries, which have a different construction. Car batteries are designed to give you more “starting” power and stay up above 50% charge. Deep-cycling a car battery can result in a quicker breakdown of the core, thus increasing cost in the long-run.

Maria asks…

My portable power generator starts up, but does not maintain a running state?

I fire up my old portable gas powered generator and it starts up, but then within several seconds it will wind down until it turns off. If i hold the start button it stays on. Any help regarding what is wrong, and how to troubleshoot this would be appreciated. Thanks!

Windmill Farms answers:

Dirty carburetor.

Mary asks…

How do you build a nuclear power generator?

Ok I was just wondering…can you build a nuclear power generator like the one that was shown on iCarly (but a legal on, not an illegal one lol), and if so, how would you go about it?

It would be cool to cut down on the electricity bill with one of those things lol.

Windmill Farms answers:

You wouldn’t be allowed to build a nuclear power station at your house.

However, there are plenty of other ways to generate your own energy like micro hydro (water), Wind, solar and burning things. What you chose depends on what resources you have i.e. You’ll need a fast flowing river or some sort of water level height difference (like a dam) for hydro, a forest that you own/ are allowed to cut trees from for burning things.

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