Wind Power For Homes

Laura asks…

grants or refunds for solar/wind powered home?

I have an off-grid solar and wind powered home in upstate New York. I was told that President Obama has restructured going green incentives and large refunds and grants might be available. I recently have added new wind generator equipment and would also like to add more solar panels, does any one know how I can find out what I might be eligible for ?

Windmill Farms answers:

Check out GovBenefits.gov http://www.govbenefits.gov for a listing of all government assistance programs you are entitled to based on your description

For grants go to http://www.grants.gov

Mark asks…

What would it take to change your mind on global warming?

What REAL harm is there taking steps to reduce or completely eliminate our “possible” contributions? Do you think making the applicable changes will impact our economy as … Humm… Your or other U.S citizens high paying blue and white collar jobs being shipped overseas?

Unless you are really rich, you losing your job will have a real negative impact on you family. I would say more so than the polluters being required to reduce their emissions.

Would you have that same opinion if instead of our government subsidizing petroleum & power producers they subsidized wind power, solar and wave turbines? Enough of them in place and you still have your lights, heat and water. The only difference being other than during the manufacturing process, the alternatives did not emit any pollutants.

Let’s take that to the next level. You were given direct tax credits for implementing any or all the above alternatives on your home and you could sell the access to the “GRID” at retail prices?
I see there are a few here that have not understood everything asked. For those that have presented flippant answers…

So you are stating that even if the changes just reduced the amount of pollution (forget about the greenhouse gasses), you still would not want to implementing changes? If it put money in your pocket, you would rather not have the money?
You are correct. The government does provide subsidies however; it’s a very small sum by comparison to what the petrol and energy companies get.

I am walking the walk. I have 35,000 watts of solar cells on my roof and in the back yard, geo-thermal HVAC and would have a Wind turbine but my community will not allow it (yet).

Most in my subdivision have 400 – 800 amp generators (we have a 400 amp). We have occasional power outages. My neighbors generators kick in, cost a pollute every time they come on. My system kicks over to my power storage units (batteries and magnetic bearing flywheel generators). My 400amp natural gas generator runs once a month for 5 minutes to run diagnostic self checks. We have NEVER used it.

I live in a 41 year old 8000 square foot house in the Midwest. My additions are generating thousands. At the same time emitting nearly zero pollutants (I have not started using the NASA developed water purification system yet.
My point was to get others on the band wagon and use the buying power of the U.S. government to start the process of making homes self standing power stations. While the housing market has slumped, my house continues to increase in value. I renovated another house and sold it in January. I made a 250% profit and the main selling point is was 80% off the power grid and required 10% of the natural gas to heat it.

I’m walking the walk alright.

Windmill Farms answers:

You opened a can of worms here. There will always be people who won’t believe anything until it hits them on the head. These same people will be the first in line to cry for help also. They will also step on anyone who may get in their way to get that help.
Even if this planet wasn’t having a global warming proble it would still be the right thing to do to keep our home clean & safe.
You are either part of the problem or part of the solution.

David asks…

How much power can one Wind Turbine make?

How large of a building can one average sized wind turbine power? Is it closer to a small house or apartment or more like a whole school? I don’t know what all of the energy vocab means, so please tell me the answer in a simple easy to understand way. Thanks.

Windmill Farms answers:

One turbine (1.5 Megawatt, GE turbine–the normal ones used in a wind farm) will power 400 homes, or 4 large industrial plants, or 20 schools.

Carol asks…

What are best wind and solar powered generators?

This would be for a residential area and need to comply to fire and other safety regulations. I want to generate electric power for home and electric vehicles.

Windmill Farms answers:

You’re asking a difficult question only because the technology is improving each month. What is the best today probably won’t be the best next year. For wind power you will need a wind availibility survey describing the average wind conditions throughout the year for your locality. Every homesite is a bit different. To establish a cost/benefit analysis your first have to know how much wind energy is available.

Joseph asks…

How energy efficient are induction cooktops?

My husband and I are in the process of building our home. We have several acres of land and are setting up wind and solar power for our home which has been estimated to meet our energy needs entirely. We want to be sure that we use as little as possible when it comes to appliances. Are induction cook tops a good option for us?

Windmill Farms answers:

It’s great that you’re putting so much effort into powering your home with renewable resources!

Reportedly, induction cooktops are more energy efficient than traditional cooktops because they heat up really quickly and the pan or pot conducts the energy. Whereas traditional electric coil elements are 50 to 55 percent energy efficient, induction cooktops by comparison are 90 percent efficient on average, so it sounds like they’re definitely a better option for you and your husband.

Hope this helps!

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Wind Power For Homes

Helen asks…

How do I convert my home to wind power?

I am looking to convert my home to renewable energy to avoid pay high energy bills. How do I do this?

Windmill Farms answers:

Look at your electric bills…..they will show how many kiloWatt hours ( kWh) a month you use now. Thats what you have to supply from wind/solar….accept that you will have to have some “town” power to run A/Cs or refrigerators, then:

SouthWest Windpower and Burgey Windpower have good, sorta affordable wind turbines for home use.

Your State Energy Office or its equivalent has a ton of information and tax rebates and grant programs.

Start by putting in as many energy efficient devices as you can……fluorescent lights as an example.

You will need a battery bank and an inverter to run stuff when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun isn’t out…..windmill/solar panels charge batteries, inverter takes battery energy and feeds the house……

Go look at your local Weather Service home page for annual average wind speed…..if you’re somewhere around 14 mph ( 7 m/s) you’re good for wind power

There you go…..about 40 hours of information to start reading!

Steven asks…

What would be a clever handout on a renewable energy class presentation?

I am covering solar power, wind power, tidal power and battery powered vehicles. Thanks guys!

Windmill Farms answers:

Perhaps a hand-cranked, high voltage supply,like the early home-phone contraptions? They can make a Tazer device seem stupid. Tame it down with some cool led lights and a quick charge lithium-ion battery to show the raw power of these -together. You have the stuff to do it! Just do it!

Nancy asks…

What companies are the best in supplying Alternative Energy Generators(Solar, Wind…)?

Hello,

I was wondering if one day I wanted to buy good products for generating energy from alternative resources like the Wind power and the Solar power, which companies are the best in supplying those kinds of generators?

I’m not just thinking of small generators for homes, I’m thinking of a bigger level too. Like for big industrial companies or even National level!

Thanks a lot for your expertise exchange :)

Windmill Farms answers:

Mr. Solar
Specializes in renewable energy products including solar panels, batteries, solar kits, and other items.
Www.mrsolar.com
Kyocera Solar
Network of solar energy companies answering the growing worldwide demand for reliable, economical, solar-generated electrical power.
Www.kyocerasolar.com
Big Frog Mountain
Manufacturer of solar panels, wind generators, inverters, batteries, and other renewable energy equipment.
Www.bigfrogmountain.com
Sierra Solar Systems
Engineers solar electric and solar pumping systems worldwide.
Www.sierrasolar.com

John asks…

If the Govt had not forced companies to supply power to rural areas, would we have more wind and solar homes?

Would wind power and solar power have become far more prevalent than they are today?

Windmill Farms answers:

That’s a very interesting question.

Did liberal programs back in the first half of the 20th century make it harder for us to have clean power today?

I never put the two together.

Betty asks…

How would you convince the US government to fully support and invest in alternative sources of energy?

I know if the government really put every resource they had into alternative energy, it would become possible to commercialize this industry in as little as 10 years. But 2 decades of war in the Middle East have not encouraged this move, neither have terrorist attacks. Greenland already is moving away from oil as its primary source of energy, why can’t we? We have scientists and MBA’s that are just as brilliant. The only good news I’ve heard is that somewhere in the Midwest, I think it’s Colorado, the state returns some money to homes which use wind-powered energy instead of the traditional forms of energy (oil or electricity). Tax breaks on electric cars are not enough, because I haven’t seen that big of a change in our energy resources yet.

Windmill Farms answers:

It shouldn’t be the government that does this. I am an Economics major, and spent a semester studying Environmental Economics. The solution can, will, and should come from the private sector. There are many companies out there researching alternate sources of energy, and when it becomes more economical to use these new advances in technology, the market will use them. Right now it is too cost prohibitive to use alternate forms of energy, but as other resources become more scarce, the price of them will go up, and we as a society will use alternate forms of energy, all without having to get the government involved.

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Wind Power Generator

Chris asks…

How to build up a small wind power generator for home?

Hi all,
I want to build u an average sized wind turbine generator (about 1 Meter each Wing Size). so that i can get electricity for my home based appliances such as TV, AC, Refrigerators, etc.

What would be the requirements.. so i need to take any statutory approvals / license to do so,, and how to give input to my main Line into the home.

thanks to all in advance

Windmill Farms answers:

First thing: Is this going to be a temporary source (in case of a power cut) or a more permanent source.

Because it will be an extension to your house, you might need planning permission. You have a certain ‘amount’ you can build on without permission, so if you haven’t used it, nor has a previous owner, than you can build it with permission. You can check this by going to your council.

Donald asks…

If I use a DC Motor to recharge a 12V battery by wind power then what happend when battery charged?

In case of recharge, the DC motor will run on battery power or by wind power?

Windmill Farms answers:

A system like this works however its control circuits are designed to work. Solar turbines usually use AC generators with rectifiers. They are more reliable than mechanical commutators. The generator in a turbine is rarely used as a motor.

Mandy asks…

Is there any way to make the water meter go backwards?

people can make the electric meter go backwards by having wind power or generators and the electric company sends them a check. Is there a way to do this with the water company? Is there a way to collect rain and some how sell it back to the water company?

Windmill Farms answers:

The water has to be treated for contaminates so you can’t put untreated water back in the system. Some places will give you lower rates on a meter just used for sprinklers because it doesn’t go in the sewer system.

Daniel asks…

What do I need to have a fully functional wind mill power generator?

Obviously I would need a wind mill, i heard batteries and a converter. My question is what do I need and what do the components do in lamens terms

Windmill Farms answers:

Here is a detailed four-part series for you!

Robert asks…

wind mills both the 15 ft sized and the new monster 50 ft tall ones?

I know of no wind mill electric power generator firm temporarily SETTING up on the east coast to take
advantage of this coming hurricane……..WHY NOT?

Windmill Farms answers:

To much investment just for short amount of time. Also its not how fast wind blows the out put is only going to be so much regardless if the wind is 30 mph or 100 mph. Not sure on the amount of mph they top out at as they are all different. Work best in 8-20 mph wind.
This is just from what I recall reading about them.

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Wind Power Generator

Sandra asks…

What forms of energy and energy transformations are involved in wind turbines?

Hey
Im doing a research about wind turbines and how it generates energy using wind power
I need to know the energy conversions involved in the process of the wind turbines.
Im not quite sure on what forms of energy are involved

Here are all of the forms of energy:
thermal, electrical, radiant, nuclear potential, gravitation potential, kinetic, elastic potential, sound, and chemical potential.

I also need to know the wind turbines energy transformation equation.
For example a microwave oven,
electrical energy -> radiant energy -> thermal energy

Please help :)
help will be greatly appreciated and rewarded with points ofc

Windmill Farms answers:

The mass and velocity of the air give it KE
The wind turbine blades convert the KE to ME (mechanical energy; the one you left out of your list of ‘all’ the forms of energy…!)
The generator converts the ME to electrical energy, the most useful grade of energy.

At each conversion point, some of the input energy is not used, causing the output energy to be less than the input. For ex: The wind downstream of the blades is slowed, but not stopped. Ergo, it still has some of its KE and the blades have picked up the rest as ME. As I recall, the maximum efficiency of any blade system is about 36%. The ME to EE step is about 90% efficient. Of course, all the efficiencies multiply, so you come out with less than 36%, but considering that the original wind energy is created directly from solar heating of land masses (ie, free), things don’t look so gloomy…….

Richard asks…

Please can I connect a 24volt DC wind generator to 12volt batteries?

Please can I connect a 24volt DC wind generator to 12volt batteries?

Windmill Farms answers:

Daniel has given you good advice; but there are additional considerations.
Begin by measuring the open circuit voltage of the generator at various wind speeds.
For almost any application you will need a fairly stable voltage output.
Assuming stable output due to some regulation inside the generator, you will need the rated output in Watts.
You will then need the capacity of the battery in Ampere hours.
At 12Volts, 10 Ampere hours, you would need 10×12= 6Watts for 20 hours to charge (.120kWh).
Assuming the generator has the required power and stability; you would ideally use an inverter
to produce 120 VAC from the generator and a regulated battery charger.
A direct connection from the wind turbine to the battery is probably not possible since the battery
could “motorize” the turbine.
Sorry, no simple answer.
Try again with much more detail.

Steven asks…

What does “large wind power generating sets and parts” mean?

what does it mean by “sets and parts”?
I’m no native.
I’m reading about renewable energy policy.
The sentence goes
“The five year plan also aims to support the development of new energy industries, such as large wind power generating sets and parts; new, more efficient solar power generation and heat utilization, and biomass energy conversion and utilization technologies.”
So…what is sets and parts?
Wind power generating sets” means wind mills and the power generator?
Then, what are parts?
I’m confused.
Thank you adaviel and FIRST B for answering my question.
I understand the sentence better now.

Windmill Farms answers:

Presumably “set” is the collection of “parts” used by a particular alternate means of generating power.

/p

Mandy asks…

What kind of battery do I need to power an inverter and can it be charged by a gas generator?

New to this system. I recently bought a gas powered generator for outdoor use—wanting to use it sparingly, I would like to purchase a battery and inverter that will provide necessary power for my low-watt tools and appliances—with the generator being used to charge the battery when it runs out, and power more watt-heavy equipment—like my power tools.

I am looking for battery/inverter options and the wiring that would go with them to 1) charge the battery, and 2) connect the battery to the inverter.

Thanks in advance!

Windmill Farms answers:

This sort of installation would work well with solar or wind battery chargers. The gas powered generator could be used to power a battery as needed.
I have some information on one of my web pages which may help.
Http://members.rennlist.org/warren/wind.html

Daniel asks…

What grants can you get for installing a wind generator?

My grandfather is an old styled farmer with new ideas. He is very into wind and i would like to help him. He isn’t going to settle for anything less then an industrial sized one

BOTTOM LINE
What grants can he get. I am aware that we are trying to re power america through wind. The power company offers very little for resale electricity. How can the government help?

Windmill Farms answers:

I think the grants available are going to depend on where you live. In places like California, there are incentives in place to really make renewable energy practical. In other states, no such such incentives exist.

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Wind Power For Homes

Michael asks…

Q. How the electricity is produced by using wind power?

Please describe in details how do the whole mechanisms work? How it is developed? What apparatus is required? How the wind turbine is constructed and how it works? Explain me all questions by using 3d figures or images or video if available. Please guide me in the easiest way as much as possible; I want to make electricity for my home by using wind power or wind turbines what should I do? How can I achieve or construct it myself?

Windmill Farms answers:

It goes back to the concept of a current carrying conductor cutting the lines of flux in a magnetic field, just like any other generator rotated by any prime mover.

Ken asks…

Where can I buy a windmill to power just my home?

I live in the far north of New York state near the canadian border and i want to power my home with a windmill and i can’t seem to find where to buy a windmill or anything about it. Can anyone help?

Windmill Farms answers:

“Real Goods” has a wonderful catalog for all sorts of alternative energy devices. I’d try there.

Http://www.gaiam.com/realgoods/default.htm

They’ll also help you with other issues like batteries and other methods to help you keep power when the wind isn’t blowing.

My grandparents had wind power before the REA came to their farm. Even after, they still used wind power for their well. Of course, we’re talking Nebraska where the wind blows *all* the time (-:. Good luck! I think people who plan ahead will have an advantage when the oil runs out.

Carol asks…

How many Wind Turbines would you need to power a city?

I am doing a project in Science (Essay) It involves Wind Turbines and Wind power. If there is a city of 122,000 people how many wind turbines would i need???? HELP ITS DUE IN TWO DAYS!!!!
PLEASE HELP! IF YOU DO THANK YOU SO MUCH!

Windmill Farms answers:

Sounds fairly easy, unless you consider the reality. Some numbers that will help:
A normal home in a city will average about 1 kW, maybe 1.2 kW. This is about 1,000 Watts
So you are probably looking at a total average power demand of about 130,000 to 150,000 kW. In this range they start referring to power in terms of MegaWatts (MW), which equals 1000 kW. So your required average Power Demand is about 150 MW, or 15,000 kW.
The average for a single wind turbine is about 1.5 MW at full power. So if wind conditions are right — and constant — you would need about 100 Wind Turbines to supply the city.

Now the reality:
Wind is NOT constant — and is not dependable. I think you need at least about a 7 mph wind, just to begin turning the propellers. If the wind can not remain at better than 7 mph, you get ZERO power. What then? So then in addition to the wind turbines, you need at least 150 MW of “other” generation — such as Natural Gas Turbines (basically a stand alone jet engine) , or a coal fired power plant. So now you have expensive costs for “redundant” generation.
In addition — this is their “maximum” generation at say a 15 mph wind. What happens when the wind is only 10 mph? You maybe get only 50 MW when you need 150 MW. Big Problem.
Then, the biggest problem: On a hot 95 degree summer day — when everyone needs power the most — everyone is running their Air Conditioning all out. But now that is the days the wind is NOT blowing. If the wind was blowing — it would be much cooler. So on the hottest days, when the most power is required — the wind does not blow — and the wind turbines produce no power.
Then the maintenance issues are so bad on these wind turbine units that many companies are just abandoning these wind units in place, and just walking away. They are not economical at all. Without massive “Government” subsidies — free money from the Government — our tax money — no one would even touch these.
The installed costs are high — the maintenance costs to keep them running are high — there are additional cost for the “back-up” generation that they were supposed to replace, but in reality can’t replace.
It may be a Politically Correct policy right now — but in reality not a good or rational decision.

Laura asks…

How much power is required to power a large family home?

I am doing some research into setting up a wind turbine for my house. I see terms like ‘kW hours’ for energy or power consumption. If my house uses 1500kW hours of energy per week does this mean i need to run a 1500kW generator for 1 hour to satisfy my power needs?

How would i then go about sizing the required turbine needed to effectively power my home?

This is all new to me so i can see alot of follow up questions coming/

Windmill Farms answers:

In terms of system design, you need to consider the load imposed on the supply. In your question you mentioned a figure of 1500 kWh per week. This seems very high. It represents an average of 35 amps being drawn from the supply 24/7.

I have a 4 bedroom house occupied by 2 adults and the minimum load, during the night falls to 0.8 Amps and peaks on some days to around 18 Amps for very short periods, the average through the day is about 2 Amps.

One kW represents a load on the supply of about 4 amps for 240 volt supplies and about 8 on 120 volt supplies Understanding the load that is being imposed on the supply will help you to decide the dimensions of the system you need.

For local power generation (micro generation) you can use wind or water turbines dependant upon location, and you can also use peizo electric generation (solar cells), all these are referred to as primary power. In addition to this you will need storage which is in the form of batteries.

To use the battery power you will need an inverter, which generates power at mains voltage from the low voltage batteries. Additionally you will need a regulator, which controls the charge/discharge of the batteries, and is essential for efficient battery use and economical battery life.

If your system is capable of generating power surplus to your requirements, you can sell this to your grid supplier for quite a reasonable return.

Sandra asks…

How much will solar panels cost to power our home?

It would be nice to go green but it needs to make sense money wise. We have a 1,300 square foot home on the beach home with plenty of sun. Our electric bill is 100 bucks a month give or take. How much will solar panels cost and how many solar panels will we need to effectively power our home.

Windmill Farms answers:

You could easily knock 40 percent or more from your power bill by using a manual on off switch on your electric hot water heater and check efficiency of any electric refrigerator and or freezers.

Like you say, your place is on the water, wind power would be the best way to go because of onshore winds which would get you up and running for much less than solar and likely be good 24 / 7 rather than daylight only.

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Wind Power Cost

Paul asks…

How much wind power does the world use each year?

And what is that enough to power. I know the united stars have enough POTENTIAL to power the whole country, but what about the world? How much do we produce now, how much power is that, and how much could we potentially produce?

Windmill Farms answers:

Well wind power as in wind turbines is a efficient way to making electricity but it would take lots and lots of wind turbines (wind farm) to power even the whole world that it’ll cover much of the land and sea (shorelines) which would become an eyesore and endangerment of local wildlife in the area (migratory birds getting hit by turbines etc), not to mention man powers and resources needed to build each section of the wind turbine, ship it, build it on site, and maintain it which add up the cost. Of course because of geography individual nations has their own way of producing cheap energy such as in Iceland the geothermal energy powering turbines to produce electricity from the heat (energy) given off from the earth’s core. United States uses Natural Gas from Canada, etc and powers the turbines to produce electricity. Like wise because of high costs of maintaining 1,000 miles of natural gas pipes we just abuse it to the point it blows up (MT. Bruno California, Some town in Mass. Etc).

You could see the tally of how much each countries producing electricity from wind turbines under “Wind power capacity and production”. Note US and China are the two major nation able to produce large amount of electricity from the resources, and man power these countries have.

Donald asks…

Is the PickenPlan to reduce the US dependance on foreign oil a good one?

It sites In 1970, we imported 24% of our oil.
Today it’s nearly 70% and growing.

The United States is the Saudi Arabia of wind power. Use wind power to replace natural gas and coal power plants, use left over Natural gas in cars. Natural gas cost around 1 dollar a gallon and is 98% produced in North America.

Windmill Farms answers:

At least someone is willing to put their money where there mouth is and do SOMETHING more than speak in anecdotes and rhetoric. And for once I actually hear an argument for an alternative energy plan that intelligently correlates electric power production with Independence from Middle Eastern oil.

Susan asks…

How can laws of thermodynamics applied to the system of wind power?

Apply the 1st and 2nd laws to the wind powersystem. State what conclusions (environmental, economic…) can you draw from applying the 2 laws.

Windmill Farms answers:

Energy conservation can show how efficient/cost effective a wind power generator can be.

Sharon asks…

Why do new houses not use wind power for electricity?

if were all supose to be going green,then why do all the new houses not use wind power! that will kick globle warming up the…..neck

Windmill Farms answers:

Moslty cost.

Plus here in texas we’re building new solar collector array power plants. It claims 100% efficiency, 100% self sustaining, 100% clean (water, salt, and sunlight) 100% available all of the time (clouds and night time don’t effect it) and can power 400,000 homes. (due for completion in 2012)

heres one in Euroupe.(its only 11mw texas will be 300mw)

http://judykitsune.wordpress.com/2007/09/12/solar-seville/

thats real sunlight

with wind you need a large amount of fans, constant winds all day every day, and an alternate power source for when there is no wind. Plus they are expensive.

Regular solar, plus a few fans, plus underground temperature exchanges are the best ways to reduce your electrical usage to almost 15%, yet can get into the $100,000 range fairly quickly.

Laura asks…

What would you prefer to see on the landscape? A wind farm or a nuclear power plant?

It is less dangerous to have a wind farm than a nuclear power plant. It also costs less to build a wind farm than it does to build or dismantle a nuclear power plant.

Windmill Farms answers:

Kot wind farms do produce electricity. They have hundreds of them in an area near us. (They are on flat farm land which produce corn in Indiana) They are beautiful to watch. The farmers benefit too cause they lease their land and they get a percentage off what they produce. They are also able to farm around them. They actually don’t take up much space. We benefit from lower electrical power prices soon.
Besides, nuclear plants need maintence too and have higher risks(My Dad use to work for one) Also, before they started they did a study to see the effects on the land and also the migration of birds.
Take a look at this:
http://www.earlparkindiana.com/windfarm.html

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Does Wind Power Create Greenhouse Gases

Robert asks…

what are alternative source of energy?

Windmill Farms answers:

In an age of increasing fossil fuel prices, uncertainty of energy supplies and concern over the effect of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, the role of hydrogen fuel as an alternative energy source is being reexamined.
Plentiful Supply of Hydrogen

Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe. David L. Heiserman, in his Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds, published by TAB Books in 1992, lists hydrogen as the most common element in the universe. On Earth, according to Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Published by Argonne National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, in May 2003, hydrogen is the third most abundant element. However this hydrogen does not exist as the pure element, but as part of other compounds, mainly water and fossil fuels.
Hydrogen is Not a Source of Energy

Commercially, hydrogen is mainly produced from fossil fuel and to a lesser extent by electrolysis using energy produced from fossil fuels. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy states, “Hydrogen is currently produced on an industrial scale (9 Mtons/yr in the U.S.) through steam reforming of natural gas.”

Hydrogen produced from either fossil fuels or by electrolysis involves a loss of energy and results in high emissions of greenhouse gases. In the Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak? Published on April 15 2003, Ulf Bossel says on page 13, “The efficiency of hydrogen production by autothermal reforming is about 90%, but may be less”, and further on says, “Also, more CO2 is released by this indirect process than by direct use of the hydrocarbon precursors.”
Hydrogen as a Fuel

Hydrogen burns cleanly, producing little or no harmful emissions or CO2. According to the Fact SheetHydrogen Fuel: a Clean and Secure Energy Future produced by the White House Press Office in February 2006:
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* It has the highest energy content per unit of weight of any known fuel.

* When burned in an engine, hydrogen produces effectively zero emissions; when powering a fuel cell, its only waste is water.

* Hydrogen can be produced from abundant domestic resources including natural gas, coal, biomass, and even water.

Due to the increasing price of gasoline and the heightened awareness of the dangers of greenhouse gases, there are more hydrogen fueled automobiles being produced now than ever before.

* In a report carried in the Greenwich Time, Dave Buchko, spokesman for BMW North America said, “We’re close to a point where if the fuel (hydrogen) became (widely) available tomorrow, we would be able to make the cars available”.

* The Los Angeles Times, in a report titled “Stars test the waters with Hydrogen cars” on June 15, 2008 reported that Honda has produced the FCX Clarity which can get 270 miles to the tank. It also says that GM has developed its hydrogen car, the Chevy Equinox .

Marking Hydrogen a Renewable Fuel

To make hydrogen a renewable fuel it should use renewable energy, such as wind power or solar power, for production. A report carried on Solar Today by Susan Hock, Carolyn Elam and Debra Sandor, titled “Can We Get There” states, “Due to the relatively low cost of wind power, along with recent dramatic growth in wind energy, wind/electrolysis is well positioned to become the first economical renewable hydrogen production system.”

Another example of using wind to make hydrogen was reported in the UK Daily Telegraph of June 21 2008. The Isle of Unst, Britain’s most northerly settlement, uses two wind turbines to “create hydrogen gas to run a hydrogen-powered car and cooking facilities while the rest is captured as hydrogen fuel cells to provide back-up when the wind dies.”

As an alternative fuel hydrogen is ideal, producing little or no emissions, with a plentiful supply available. But hydrogen produced by conventional means is not renewable or carbon neutral. Wind power is a totally renewable energy source with no greenhouse gas emissions, but due to its unpredictability, has problems integrating with national grids. Combined together, wind and hydrogen can cancel out their inherent defects and be an effective tool in the battle against carbon dioxide and global warming.

Ken asks…

How are reducing electricity use and reducing fossil fuel use related?

For science. I understand how each of these help reduce greenhouse gases and climate change but I do not understand how they are related?

Windmill Farms answers:

Electricity can not easily be stored, so generation and use must always be balanced.
Nuclear power plants don’t turn up and down in power level easily, and don’t save money when turned down, so they always on full for “base” loads.
Wind turbines are also difficult to control, to they are there generating essentially what ever power they do when the wind is blowing correctly.
Same for solar, they produce a set amount of power when the sun is directly on them.
Hydroelectric power is so cheap, it’s always desirable to create as much as possible. Same for geothermal.

So as power use goes up and down, the generators which go up and down with it are essentially are fossil plants, which are both quicker to turn up and down and save money (from fuel) when they are turned down, natural gas is the fastest response, followed by coal.

So when you turn off an unused light, somewhere, a little less natural gas or coal is being burned.

John asks…

How does the energy creaton process work in hydrogen cars?

I read in an old Wired Magazine that California is gearing up to create an infrastructure to allow cars that run on hydrogen to run on the road and have “filling stations” along the highway that runs north to south. How does the process of making energy from water for these cars work?

Windmill Farms answers:

A “hydrogen economy” is required to eliminate our growing dependence on foreign oil.

Hydrogen fuelled cars use something called a fuel cell. Fuel cells generate electricity from hydrogen. The electricity generated from the fuel cell is used to power the car. Fuel cells emit pure drinkable water instead of “greenhouse gases” like engines do.

Hydrogen is created using a process called electrolysis. Electrolysis is basically splitting up the water(H2O) into both hydrogen and oxygen by the use of electricity. There are other ways to generate hydrogen, but the extraction from water is the cheapest and most effective way. The use of electricity or heat from nuclear reactors are the most inexpensive and effective ways to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. And during off peak hours, idle nuclear reactors can be generating hydrogen for use in fuel cells inside of cars.

New technology allows hydrogen to be stored safely without the risk of explosion. In many ways, hydrogen is already far less dangerous to store than gasoline.

Another answerer mentioned solar power and wind power. Both are a waste of time. It is impracticle to use either one to power all of the cars in the U.S.. It would take uncountless thousands of wind mills to generate enough electricity to power all of the cars in the U.S.. And solar cells are a waste of time and energy for the generation of hydrogen. Hundreds of square miles of land would have to be covered with solar cells just to generate enough electricity to power the cars for one large state. Also, solar cells would need to be changed after X number of years since solar cells become less and less efficient each year they are used. Another thing, most people fail to know that it requires a lot of energy to just to make solar cells.

William asks…

Low-Carbon Fuels?

Burning one gallon of gasoline produces 19.6 pounds of CO2. Ethanol isn’t much better, it produces 18.9 pounds of CO2 per energy equivalent to fossil fuel. What are the near-term alternatives (5-10 years) and what type of gallon-to-CO2 savings do they offer?

Windmill Farms answers:

The near-term transportation alternatives are hybrids and electric cars. A Prius creates 73% fewer emissions than the average new car, for example.

Electric car emissions depend on the power grid, but even if the electricity is supplied entirely by coal (which is never the case), electric cars still produce less greenhouse gas emissions than burning gas.

Plug-in hybrids will hopefully be available within the next decade, and will rival the emissions of electric cars.

PHEV = plug-in electric hybrid
ICE = internal combustion engine vehicle
HEV = hybrid-electric vehicle
EV = electric vehicle

“PHEVs reduce CO2 emissions by 37%-67% compared with ICEs and by 19%-54% compared with HEVs in well-to-wheels (W2W) analyses assuming fueling with gasoline and electricity from the U.S. Mix of power plants (and ignoring one or two outliers in the data). PHEVs reduce all other greenhouse gas emissions too.

EVs reduce CO2 by 11%-100% compared with ICEs and by 24%-54% compared with HEVs, and significantly reduce all other greenhouse gas emissions, using the U.S. Grid
mix. If all U.S. Cars were EVs, we’d reduce global warming emissions. Using electricity strictly from coal, EVs still would reduce CO2 by 0%-59% compared with ICEs (one analysis found 0% change; six others found reductions of 17%-59%) and might produce 30%-49% more CO2 than HEVs (based on only two analyses). On the other hand, if electricity comes from solar or wind power, EVs eliminate all emissions. Using natural gas to make electricity, emissions fall in between those from coal and renewable power.”

Charles asks…

what are the cons for coal,natural gas,hydroelectric,geothermal,hydrogen,fuel cell,wind,nuclear,and,solar?

Windmill Farms answers:

Coal produces CO2 and global warming/ fumes that create air polution(mercury and such) it is also a fossil fuel, meaning that it cannot be renewed

nuclear produces nuclear waste that can be made into weapons although we now have technology that can use 99% of the fuel and the remaining waste will be of such low grade not even a dirty bomb can be made. This is promising for nuclear power since it lasts the longest and is highly productive

solar is that the panels take up lots of space and that space would be unusuable for anything else(solar fields)

geothermal is that it can be only placed in certain areas and fumes from the inside of the earth such as Hydrogen Sulfide have to be taken care of otherwise air polution will result.

Wind is that there is no constant wind, you have to sit and wait for the wind to come, these also take up lots of space but technology has made it even more efficient

hydroelectric energy is that dams damage the enviroment, fish cannot migrate upstream as a result, and tidal versions are still in development.

I think you might have wanted to say fuel cell so ill answer anyway- fuel cells (hydrogen) currently take more energy to create the hydrogen than the energy the hydrogen can actually release, GM is currently testing wind as a potential energy generator for the hydrogen to be split from water to make hydrogen fuel, however hydrogen technology has become more efficient, currently some machines can generate 70-80% efficiency

natrual gas is abundant, but there are risks such as explosions involved, it also releases greenhouse gasses such as CO2 when burned although it is cleaner than gasoline and desiel when properly used. Like coal natrual gas is also unrenewable since it too is a fossil fuel

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Wind Power Generator

Ken asks…

How does a wind turbine generate electricity?

I need some help with a 40 page project on wind power, so please try to describe how it works in most detail.

Windmill Farms answers:

A wind generator in which the crank of the windmill is connected to the armature of an electric generator to produce electricity. A large no. Of wind generator when arranged together ar called wind energy farms. The largest wind energy farm is located in LAMBA in GUJARAT. For more details take the help of Wikipedia.

Sandra asks…

Where are the most off shore wind generators located?

Do you think by 2025 we will be non-dependent on oil because of thes power generators?

Windmill Farms answers:

The largest wind farm in Denmark is the offshore wind farm of Horns Rev, which was completed in 2002. It is situated in the North Sea, 14-20 km off the coast of Jutland. With its 80 Vestas 2MW turbines, the wind farm has a total capacity of 160 MW. That makes it the largest offshore wind farm in the world today (2003). The farm supplies the equivalent of 150,000 (Danish) households.

Hardly. Once they select a suitable method for storage wind farms might supply useful amounts of power. Estimates of the total power now being generated with wind power is 73,904 MW. World power consumption is estimated to be approx. 17 TW and is expected to double by 2030.

Thomas asks…

why does the government not want a low cost way to make power?

7 years ago, I designed a short, low cost wind mill that will power two generators, yet the government that claims to want renewable energy has been in battle with me for years because they don’t want me putting the coal miners out of work. Can anyone tell me why the government will say they want a renewable energy source, yet refuse to allow mine?

Windmill Farms answers:

Wow. I didn’t realize they were that bad. They like oil, because oil puts money in their pockets. They don’t want new ways of making energy, because the current fuels are lining their pockets. They really are sleazy politicians who lie to the American people. Maybe you could invent something that would replace the bums in Washington with people who give a damn. Take care :)

Linda asks…

How to build a free source of energy?

Ive decided i want to use my free time to build something useful like a solar powered energy generator, or wind powered turbine to produce free energy, does anybody out there know of any FREE sites that teach you step by step how to build any one of these? Also what are your thoughts on these machines?

Windmill Farms answers:

Build either of these
1. Solar powered generator
2. Wind turbine
3. Tidal flow turbine
4. Magnetic generator
5.geothermal energy source

John asks…

Should singing make sense? or like curtains could it be abstract like skat in jazz?

What if the crime commission wanted to pay enough to not want anyone else to hear it?

Would it be selfish for me to be elitestely exclussive?

I need lessons like tree buffers need wind power generators?

I never new karioke could be such a dangerous sport? Can you believe both my knee caps were broken?

Nah? Wouldn’t know what to sing? Besides? They’re not ALW are they?

Windmill Farms answers:

……….I’m not entirely sure what I just read.

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Is Wind Power Actually Green

John asks…

Do you think Nuclear Power is a viable solution for future energy production?

With a warming planet and dwindling fossil fuel reserves, there is an obvious need to look into new energy sources. Nuclear power is a controversial topic and i was wondering if people believe it is a good thing, i.e. safe, practical and economically viable. Or do people think there should be an investment in other cleaner fuels i.e. solar wind etc, or whether we need to just consume less energy.

Why?

Windmill Farms answers:

>>>It could be safe, might be practical but definitely not economically viable. No power company has ever built a nuke plant without massive (billions) in loans from the government- no one else will lend them money for building a nuke plant. There is ALWAYS a couple billion $$ cost over run above what it is expected to cost. No one but the government can afford to insure a nuke plant because an accident could cost trillions of dollars. No one wants to try to insure them because the government charges nothing for their insurance. No nuke plant has ever made a profit and also paid off their debts and paid for storage of the waste they produce for the next 50,000 years that it will be dangerous. No one wants one to be built near their house, but to have any real replacement value over coal, thousands of nuke plants would have to be built.<<>>There is ALWAYS a couple billion $$ cost over run above what it is expected to cost.<<>>No one wants to try to insure them because the government charges nothing for their insurance. No one but the government can afford to insure a nuke plant because an accident could cost trillions of dollars. No one wants to try to insure them because the government charges nothing for their insurance. <<>>No nuke plant has ever made a profit and also paid off their debts and paid for storage of the waste…<<>>…they produce for the next 50,000 years that it will be dangerous.<<>>No one wants one to be built near their house,<<>>but to have any real replacement value over coal, thousands of nuke plants would have to be built.<<>>It is not viable due to the up front cost,<<>>the permanent hazardous waste with no place to put it.<<>>Funny how the social engineers are trying to reshape the nuclear power issue globally to make it seem accpetable again<<>>it isn’t.<<<
By who's account? Oh, right, yours. To bad you don't know anything about the issue.

Lisa asks…

Contemplating converting to solar electric power?

Can any one reccommend a site for evaluation of wattage needed and configuration ?

Windmill Farms answers:

Let me start off by saying we (my family and I) live completely, 100% “off of the grid and are completely self sufficient”

The house is built utilizing natures natural elements, in the shape of an octagon with 8ft wide arch doors on every wall to catch every angle of wind (typical 4 sided homes have half the chance as one with 8 sides. A circle being the most efficient design). Woodburning stoves, solar chimney, solar AC, solar heating, solar water heating (pool and home), solar stove, solar power, wind power, hydrogen powered back up generator, hydrogen back up water heater, hydrogen stove, 2 hydrogen powered trucks, 1 EV (electric vehicle) and satellite internet.

We also built many green small cabins on the ranch that we offer to family, friends and our on-site off-grid workshop guests, including one straw bale, one papercrete, earth bag and adobe, one cob and cordwood, one underground and rammed earth, one log and post and beam and one rock. Each one actually started as a test for what the main house would be and were later finished and turned into guest cabins. I later wrote a guide on how to build with alternative materials using alternative methods for next to nothing.

We raise meat and milk goats, chickens for meat and eggs, ducks for meat and eggs, trap havilina (wild boar pig), rabbit, quail. Brew our own beer from home grown products, preserve our fruits, vegetables, etc. Smoke and jerky the meat, make our own soap, cheese.

There are no utility lines, no water lines, no roads, tv, cell service, etc. On our ranch. EVERYTHING needed is produced here. All electricity comes from 27 solar panels, 2 main wind gens and a back hydrogen generator if needed (typically we can last 9 days with all luxuries of sunless windless weather, hasn’t happened yet). Water is caught and storaged from the rain. Hot water is made with solar batch water heaters with an on-demand hydrogen hot water heater as backup. Even our vehicles use alternative energy (2 hydrogen trucks, 1 EV electric vehicle converted). Because of this we have no bills, no debt and no mortgage.

Anyone interested can check it out at..

Www agua-luna com

I believe this is the first step anyone can make “help the environment”. Once you convert your own life style to a greener more eco friendly route, you can start helping others.

My home has all the comforts listed above plus some. We live very comfortable without effecting the environment. Just saying that tol et you know it’s possible. You may not want to go as extreme as me and my family but anywhere in between is something.

Without getting to in depth here, Using alternative fuels in your vehicles and harnessing your own electricity from the sun, water, earth and wind are the 2 are key elements in making a green transition and erasing your carbon footprint.

Here’s a calculator to find out how much of a green impact your making (carbon footprint)

http://www.conservation.org/act/live_green/carboncalc

if you’d like to make your next step feel free to contact me personally at www agua-luna com

I’ve been installing home made Solar panels. Solar stoves, Solar batch and inline hot water heaters. Solar radiant heating. Solar home heating and AC, along with home made wind gens and other alternative energy items for the last 3 years.

You can even make the above projects on site with simple parts from the local hardware stores or auto stores or junk yards. For more info check out some guides I wrote / compiled on how to DIY www agua-luna com

Again these projects can be accomplished anywhere by anyone.

If you absolutely can’t do anything in your home at least you can put alternative fuels in your car. Most major automotive manufacturers (Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, etc) recommend the use of bio fuels, and nearly every car manufacturer in the world approves ethanol blends in their warranty coverage.

In fact your probably even driving an ethanol car and didn’t even know it.

The trick is finding fuel.

I’ve been producing biofuel for about 3 years now, it’s not extremely difficult. Basically you need general household ingredients, a processor (or still for ethanol) and some used oil. Blend it, let separate, screen and use. I complied a guide a while back to help walk you threw the process step by step, just email me or check out..

Www agua-luna com

as for recyling the best way i’ve found without taking money from your won pocket is to join a free freecycle group in your area or visit the habitat for humanity.

If you’d like help in making your self sufficient steps, feel free to contact me directly. I’ve written several how-to DIY guides available at www agua-luna com
on the subject. I also offer online and on-site workshops, seminars and internships to help others “help the environment”.

Hope this helped, feel free to contact me personally if you have any questions if you’d like assistance in making your first self sufficient steps, I’m willing to walk you step by step threw the process. I’ve written several how-to DIY guides available at www agua-luna com on the subject. I also offer online and on-site workshops, seminars and internships to help others help the environment.

Dan Martin
Alterative Energy / Sustainable Consultant, Living 100% on Alternative & Author of How One Simple Yet Incredibly Powerful Resource Is Transforming The Lives of Regular People From All Over The World… Instantly Elevating Their Income & Lowering Their Debt, While Saving The Environment by Using FREE ENERGY… All With Just One Click of A Mouse…For more info Visit:

www AGUA-LUNA com
Stop Global Warming!!!

Paul asks…

I just saw a green lightning?

It was heavy raining for like 30minutes and suddenly I saw 2 green lightnings, I’ve never seen this before.. Can I have any information about it?
Nothing is wrong with my eyes you retard

Windmill Farms answers:

Green Lightning?
Green/turquoise flashes and/or changing colors: A flash of light in the sky that lingers, pulses and/or changes colors is not lightning, but electrical arcing from shorted-out power lines. These arcs are called ‘power flashes’ and can be triggered by a variety of severe weather – including ice storms, high winds, tornadoes, or by a direct lightning strike. Electrical arcing, whether caused by lightning, ice or wind damage, is very intense, can be as bright as lightning, can illuminate the entire sky and can change color from blue, green, turquoise, red and orange. When lightning strikes an energized power line, an electrical flashover arc can result. Lightning-triggered flashover arcs usually begin during the strike and linger for a few seconds after the strike is over. See our article about flashover arcs for a more in-depth look.
Power flashes are often incorrectly referred to as ‘exploding transformers’. Only a few power flashes are actually transformer explosions – most are caused by shorted-out lines due to broken, crisscrossed or fallen wires.

Carol asks…

What is the best way to create a science project on green car?

I need to create a 9th grade science project on green car and I need to know the best way to do so. As in if you have any ideas please answer this question. Also, I need to know materials as well.

Windmill Farms answers:

I did a project in 10 grade in which I made a Wind Powered Car, I fixed some batteriws and a fan,simple but to give it a green touch u may use the newer laptop’s extended methane kinda battery that workd on fuel-cell technology(its not a battery actually it has fuel shored in it and it kinda converts it into energy like in an engine). Si if you need any more help-feel free to contact me

chao

Michael asks…

How do you build “green?”?

My mother plans on building a small home in Panama to retire in. She’s thinking about making it “green.” I know there’s geo-thermal, gray water, water barrels, wind and solar power, but how do you get someone to build that?

Windmill Farms answers:

Be aware that in Panama almost no one builds “green.” So, there’s almost no experienced contractors who will know what your mother is talking about (they will paint her house with green paint.) Whatever she wants to do, it’s going to cost her more to get there. And, she’s going to have to be able to come up with her own plan and describe it in detail to the builder so that it gets done correctly.

I don’t know how well your mother speaks Spanish, but if she’s not functionally fluent then she might want to consider bringing in a translator to make sure she’s getting her “spirit and intent” across. As long as she has a clear understanding of what she wants (as an end result) and can communicate that to a builder or contractor, then she will be able to get it done.

There are lots of suppliers here in Panama who can provide electrical solutions for things like wind and solar power, but be advised that in Panama the greatest source of electrical power is from hydroelectrical dams, which are about as “green” as it gets. If your mother installs a stand-alone system based on solar or wind power simply because she does not want to use the existing power grid, then she will actually be doing more harm to the environment than good because of the batteries, etc. The greenest way to get electrical power in Panama is to just use the standard service.

With regards to water, there are lots of ways to catch rainwater for example and use it for non-drinking purposes, to flush toilets, water lawns, etc. There are “light” filtration systems that will allow that water to be used for washing clothes, etc. But again, realize that here in Panama sweet water and rainfall is plentiful but not all year long. There is a long (at least three month) dry season which can be longer. Water catchment systems are fine when it’s raining, but she will still want to be on the system for drinking water and as a backup.

The short answer is this – she can do whatever she wants, as long as she knows what she wants to do. Someone will be able to put it together for her. Good luck, and I hope this helps.

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Wind Power Cost

Sandy asks…

Can natural resources be saved by using more renewable energy sources?

If we use more renewable energy sources like solar and wind power then couldn’t we save natural resources like coal and natural gas?

Windmill Farms answers:

Yes solar and wind power save energy and save resources. We don’t as much because things that run on those types of power are expensive to create. For example the Prius is environmentally friendly and fuel efficient but expensive because of the money and research costs of finding a way to make it work.

Chris asks…

What do you think of high rise vertical farms?

Concepts and experiments world wide say this is the farming of the future. It can be done hydroponically and use solar panels and wind power to produce a fantastic amount of food in towers on minimal square footage of ground space. Would you invest in it?

Windmill Farms answers:

I would as it reduces energy consumption and localises the food bringing food costs down.
Some plans are being put in place to use direct sunlight to create create a greenhouse effect as opposed to solar panels.
This is much more economical and most likely the buildings will consist largely of clear glass.
So most likely high rise vertical farms will be something we will see in the future if it proves to be successful and economical and especially how our farming and agriculture industry will have to adopt to energy shortage crises, this method of farming will certainly reduce dependancy on oil.
I would invest in it, as this is a serious reality in the future and designs for them are already in place and they claim they will only need a couple of people to run the entire building/farm once it is in place (mainly just computer technician maybe engineer)……
Therefore vertical farms may be a closer reality than we think.

George asks…

How to connect a solar panel to an outlet?

I have a cabin in the woods and need more light. I do have enough sun but I was wondering how or where do I get a solar panel to lead to a power outlet? In a perfect world I would like to get a solar panel with a connecting wire to an outlet or something so I could power a small TV. I know its hard enough but can I get that pre-made? Or even lastly should I look at wind power consider I would like this to be under $500? Thank you for putting up with this bundle of questions.

Windmill Farms answers:

A typical solar panel will deliver 50 watts of power in the form of 24 volts DC. You need 120 volts AC. So here is what it takes:

Since you will need at least 200 watts to do a small TV, you need four solar panels, and a solar controller. Then you need a 24 volt solar type battery to load the output of the panels.

Next you need an inverter. This is a device that changes 24 volts DC into 120 volts AC, which you can wire to a standard outlet for the TV set.

Solar panels cost around $6 per watt of power. 200 X $6 = $1200
Solar Controller will cost around $150
The battery will cost around $100
The inverter will cost around $200

You could get by with less than 200 watts of solar panels if you just let it charge the battery all day and only use the TV for an hour or two in the evening with the TV running on the inverter which is powered by the battery.

The link is for a similar system ready to go.

Wind is not a viable option.

Steven asks…

What is the cost of 1 kWh of electrical energy generated by these energy sources?

here are the different energy sources: Coal, petroleum, nuclear energy, and wind power.

Windmill Farms answers:

Fossil-fuels: 30c/kWh
Wind: 22c/kWh
Nuclear: 18c/kWh
petroleum: This not an energy source but oil is, oil goes under fossil-fuels: oil, coal, gas.
Solar: 16c/kWh (still dropping!)

P.S I am not american but I could only find a way of calculating the cost by using cents.

Susan asks…

Advantages and disadvantages of different types of power generation?

Hey guys, what are (in your opinion) the advantages and disadvantages of any of the following types of hydro generation.
Fossil Fuel
Nuclear Power
Hydroelectric
Solar Power
Tidal Power
Wind Power
Thanks In advance!

Windmill Farms answers:

Fossil Fuel:
Advantages
* Depending on fuel, good availability
* Simple combustion process can directly heat or generate electricity
* Inexpensive
* Easily distributed
Disadvantages

* Probable contributor to global warming
* Questionable availibility of some fuels…major price swings based on politics of oil regions
* Cause of acid rain

Nuclear Power
Advantages
* Almost 0 emission (doesn’t emit green house gases). It produces electricity without pollution
* Does not consume fossil fuels which are getting scarcer and more expensive,
* They can be sited almost anywhere unlike oil which is mostly imported.

Disadvantages
* More expensive to build the plant,
* Waste products dangerous and need to be carefully stored for long time. If not contained can cause a lot of damage and spread (ie Chernobyl). The spent fuel is highly radioactive and has to be carefully stored for many years after use. This adds to the costs.

Hydroelectric
Advantages:
* Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate.
* If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water is released to produce electricity.

Disadvantages:
* Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.
* The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable.
* The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed.

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